Applicability of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in wheat for use as DNA markers in comparison to RFLP and RAPD markers
Inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphic DNA (ISSR) was evaluated for its applicability as a genetic marker system in wheat. PCR was carried out with primers that annealed to simple sequence repeats. The resultant products were subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis, and the banding patterns were compared among six wheat accessions containing diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid members. Out of 100 examined, 33 primers produced distinguishable as well as polymorphic bands in each of the six accessions. Although most of the primers that gave distinct bands (30 primers out of 33) contained dinucleotide repeats, each of the primers with tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide motifs also yielded discrete bands. Primers based on (AC)n repeats gave the most polymorphic bands. In total, 224 polymorphic bands were found in the comparison between Einkorn wheats whereas, on the average, 120 polymorphic bands were detected between common wheats. ISSR primers produced several times more information than RAPD markers. The extent of band polymorphism was similar to that of RFLP markers, and greater than that of RAPDs. The genetic relationships of wheat accessions estimated by the polymorphism of ISSR markers were identical with those inferred by RFLP and RAPD markers, indicating the reliability of ISSR markers for estimation of genotypes. These polymorphic bands are potential candidates as novel markers for use in linkage-map construction in wheat. The characteristic features of ISSR markers, i.e. polymorphism, generation of information and ease of handling, suggest their applicability to the analysis of genotypes as well as to the construction of PCR-based genome maps of wheats.
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