Production and analysis of plants that are somatic hybrids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.)
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In order to obtain plants that were somatic hybrids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.), we fused protoplasts that had been isolated from 6-month-old suspension cultures of carrot cells with protoplasts isolated from barley mesophyll by electrofusion. After culture for 1 month at 25°C , the cells were cultured for 5 weeks at 4°C , and were then returned to 25°C for culture on a shoot-inducing medium. Three plants (nos. 1, 2 and 3) were regenerated from the cells. The morphology of the regenerated plants closely resembled that of the parental carrot plants. A cytological analysis of callus cultures induced from these plants indicated that most of the cells had about 24 chromosomes, fewer than the sum of the numbers of parent chromosomes which was 32. Southern hybridization analysis with fragments of the rgp1 gene used as probe showed that the regenerated plants contained both barley and carrot genomic DNA. Chloroplast (ct) and mitochondrial (mt) DNAs were also analyzed with several probes. The ctDNA of the regenerated plants yielded hybridization bands specific for both barley and carrot when one fragment of rice ctDNA was used as probe. Furthermore, the regenerated plants yielded a barley specific band and a novel band with another fragment of rice ct DNA as a probe. One of the regenerated plants (no. 1) yielded a novel pattern of hybridized bands of mt DNA (with an atp6 probe) that was not detected with either of the parents. These results indicated that the regenerated plants were somatic hybrids of barley and carrot and that recombination of both the chloroplast genomes and the mitochondrial genomes might have occurred.
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