Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses of Thinopyrum intermedium, its partial amphiploid Zhong 5, and disease-resistant derivatives in wheat
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Genomic in situhybridization (GISH) to root-tip cells at mitotic metaphase, using genomic DNA probes from Thinopyrum intermedium and Pseudoroegneria strigosa, was used to examine the genomic constitution of Th. intermedium, the 56-chromosome partial amphiploid to wheat called Zhong 5 and disease-resistant derivatives of Zhong 5, in a wheat background. Evidence from GISH indicated that Th. intermedium contained seven pairs of St, seven JS and 21 J chromosomes; three pairs of Th. intermedium chromosomes with satellites in their short arms belonging to the St, J, J genomes and homoeologous groups 1, 1, and 5 respectively. GISH results using different materials and different probes showed that seven pairs of added Th. intermedium chromosomes in Zhong 5 included three pairs of St chromosomes, two pairs of JS chromosomes and two pairs of St-JS reciprocal tanslocation chromosomes. A pair of chromosomes, which substituted a pair of wheat chromosomes in Yi 4212 and in HG 295 and was added to 21 pairs of wheat chromosomes in the disomic additions Z1, Z2 and Z6, conferred BYDV-resistance and was identical to a pair of St-JS tanslocation chromosomes (StJS) in Zhong 5. The StJS chromosome had a special GISH signal pattern and could be easily distinguished from other added chromosomes in Zhong 5; it has not yet been possible to locate the BYDV-resistant gene(s) of this translocated chromosome either in the St chromosome portion belonging to homoeologous group 2 or in the JS chromosome portion whose homoeologous group relationship is still uncertain. Among 22 chromosome pairs in disomic addition line Z3, the added chromosome pair had satellites and belonged to the St genome and homoeologous group 1. Disomic addition line Z4 carried a pair of added chromosomes which was composed of a group-7 JS chromosome translocated with a wheat chromosome; this chromosome was different to 7 Ai-1, but was identical to 7 Ai-2. The leaf rust and stem rust resistance genes were located in the distal region of the long arm, whereas the stripe rust resistance gene(s) was located in the short arm or in the proximal region of the long arm of 7 Ai-2. A pair of JS-wheat translocation chromosomes, which originated from the WJS chromosomes in Z4, was added to the disomic addition line Z5; the added chromosomes of Z5 carried leaf and stem rust resistance but not stripe rust resistance; Z5 is a potentially useful source for rust resistance genes in wheat breeding and for cloning these novel rust-resistant genes. GISH analysis using the St genome as a probe has proved advantageous in identifying alien Th. intermedium in wheat.
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