Molecular characterization of resistance to Heterodera glycines in soybean PI 438489B
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Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) plant introduction (PI) 438489B is a newly found germplasm source that has resistance to multiple soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) races. We studied the inheritance of resistance to SCN races 1, 2, 3, 5 and 14 in PI 438489B using F2 and F2:3 families, which were generated by crossing to the susceptible cultivar ’Hamilton.’ The objectives of this study were to investigate the inheritance for resistance to SCN races in PI 438489B, to find molecular markers associated with resistances, and to study the allelic relationships among resistance loci for different SCN races. The results showed that the responses to SCN races were approximately normally distributed with large environmental effects, and were also highly correlated, which implied that genes giving resistance to different races were similar. The narrow-sense heritabilities of resistance to all five SCN races ranged from 0.55 to 0.88. Fifty one restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and 64 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were found to be polymorphic in the F2 population. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance to SCN races were anchored on soybean linkage groups (LGs) A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1a, E and G. These QTLs explained 47.3%, 45.8%, 51.5%, 34.5% and 37.2% of the total phenotypic variances, respectively, for each race we investigated. Some QTLs for different races encompassed the same region of flanking markers; therefore, QTLs for multiple races may be linked or pleiotropic effects may be involved. Some loci provided resistance in a race-specific manner. Resistance to SCN race 14 had a different pattern compared to other races. Our results indicated that resistance to race 14 did not include loci on LGs A2 and G. These flanking markers associated with QTLs could be used to select for resistance to multiple SCN races in soybean breeding programs.
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