Combination of all-stage and high-temperature adult-plant resistance QTL confers high-level, durable resistance to stripe rust in winter wheat cultivar Madsen
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Wheat cultivar Madsen has a new gene on the short arm of chromosome 1A and two QTL for all-stage resistance and three QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance that in combination confer high-level, durable resistance to stripe rust.
Wheat cultivar Madsen has maintained a high-level resistance to stripe rust over 30 years. To map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the high-level, durable resistance, 156 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from cross Avocet S × Madsen were phenotyped with selected races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in the greenhouse seedling tests, and in naturally infected fields during 2015–2017. The RILs were genotyped by SSR and SNP markers from genotyping by sequencing and the 90 K wheat SNP chip. Three QTL for all-stage resistance were mapped on chromosomes 1AS, 1BS and 2AS, and two QTL for high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance were mapped on 3BS and 6BS. The most effective QTL on 2AS, explaining 8.97–23.10% of the phenotypic variation in seedling tests and 8.60–71.23% in field tests, contained Yr17 for all-stage resistance and an additional gene for HTAP resistance. The 6BS QTL, detected in all field tests, was identified as Yr78. The 1AS QTL, conferring all-stage resistance, was identified as a new gene, which explained 20.45 and 30.23% of variation in resistance to races PSTv-37 and PSTv-40, respectively, and contributed significantly to field resistance at Pullman in 2015-2017, but was not detected at Mount Vernon. The interactions among QTL were mostly additive, and RILs with all five QTL had the highest level of resistance in the field, similar to Madsen. Genotyping 148 US Pacific Northwest wheat cultivars with markers for the 1AS, 2AS and 6BS QTL validated the genes and markers, and indicated their usefulness for marker-assisted selection.
This research was supported by the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Project No. 2090-22000-018-00D), Vogel Foundation (Project No. 13Z-3061-6665), Washington Grain Commission (Project No. 13C-3061-5665) and Washington State University, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences, Agricultural Research Center, HATCH Project Number WNP00461, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6430, USA. We would like to thank the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) for allowing us to use the online data. The China Scholarship Council scholarship to Lu Liu is highly appreciated. We thank Arron Carter, Dennis Johnson and Robert McIntosh for critical reviewing the manuscript.
Author contribution statement
LL developed the mapping population, extracted DNA, conducted all experiments of phenotyping and genotyping the mapping population, analyzed the data, validated markers, and drafted and revised the manuscript. MNW participated in the development of the mapping population, phenotyping and genotyping and revised the manuscript. JYF made the cross and developed the early generations. DRS provided equipment and guidance for SSR and KASP marker analyses and revised the manuscript. SMC performed the 90 K SNP genotyping and initial analysis. XMC developed the project, designed experiments, guided through the entire study, write and revised the manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
All experiments and data analyses were conducted in Pullman and Mount Vernon, Washington, and the 90 K SNP genotype was done in Fargo, North Dakota, the USA. All authors have contributed to the study and approved the version for submission. The manuscript has not been submitted to any other journal.
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