Chromosomes A07 and A05 associated with stable and major QTLs for pod weight and size in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
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Co-localized intervals and candidate genes were identified for major and stable QTLs controlling pod weight and size on chromosomes A07 and A05 in an RIL population across four environments.
Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume crops grown in > 100 countries. Hundred-pod weight (HPW) is an important yield trait in peanut, but its underlying genetic mechanism was not well studied. In this study, a mapping population (Xuhua 13 × Zhonghua 6) with 187 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for HPW together with pod length (PL) and pod width (PW) by both unconditional and conditional QTL analyses. A genetic map covering 1756.48 cM was constructed with 817 markers. Additive effects, epistatic interactions, and genotype-by-environment interactions were analyzed using the phenotyping data generated across four environments. Twelve additive QTLs were identified on chromosomes A05, A07, and A08 by unconditional analysis, and five of them (qPLA07, qPLA05.1, qPWA07, qHPWA07.1, and qHPWA05.2) showed major and stable expressions in all environments. Conditional QTL mapping found that PL had stronger influences on HPW than PW. Notably, qHPWA07.1, qPLA07, and qPWA07 that explained 17.93–43.63% of the phenotypic variations of the three traits were co-localized in a 5 cM interval (1.48 Mb in physical map) on chromosome A07 with 147 candidate genes related to catalytic activity and metabolic process. In addition, qHPWA05.2 and qPLA05.1 were co-localized with minor QTL qPWA05.2 to a 1.3 cM genetic interval (280 kb in physical map) on chromosome A05 with 12 candidate genes. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the genetic components controlling pod weight and size as well as candidate QTLs and genes for improving pod yield in future peanut breeding.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31271764, 31371662, 31471534, 31601340, and 31461143022), the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-14), and the National Plan for Science & Technology Support of China (2013BAD01B03). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The experiments reported in the manuscript are in accordance with the ethical standards in China.
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