QTL mapping of domestication and diversifying selection related traits in round-fruited semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis)
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QTL analysis revealed 11 QTL underlying flowering time and fruit size variation in the semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber, of which, FT6.2 and FS5.2 played the most important roles in determining photoperiod-dependent flowering time and round-fruit shape, respectively.
Flowering time and fruit size are two important traits in domestication and diversifying selection in cucumber, but their genetic basis is not well understood. Here we reported QTL mapping results on flowering time and fruit size with F2 and F2:3 segregating populations derived from the cross between WI7200, a small fruited, early flowering primitive cultivated cucumber and WI7167, a round-fruited, later flowering semi-wild Xishuangbanna (XIS) cucumber. A linkage map with 267 microsatellite marker loci was developed with 138 F2 plants. Phenotypic data of male and female flowering time, fruit length and diameter and three other traits (mature fruit weight and number, and seedling hypocotyl length) were collected in multiple environments. Three flowering time QTL, FT1.1, FT5.1 and FT6.2 were identified, in which FT6.2 played the most important role in conferring less photoperiod sensitive early flowering during domestication whereas FT1.1 seemed more influential in regulating flowering time within the cultivated cucumber. Eight consensus fruit size QTL distributed in 7 chromosomes were detected, each of which contributed to both longitudinal and radial growth in cucumber fruit development. Among them, FS5.2 on chromosome 5 exhibited the largest effect on the determination of round fruit shape that was characteristic of the WI7167 XIS cucumber. Possible roles of these flowering time and fruit size QTL in domestication of cucumber and crop evolution of the semi-wild XIS cucumber, as well as the genetic basis of round fruit shape in cucumber are discussed.
KeywordsFruit Weight Fruit Size Fruit Length Fruit Number Hypocotyl Length
This research is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award number 2015-51181-24285. SQ’s and MG’s work was partially supported by the China Scholarship Council. Names are necessary to report factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name by USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Author contributions statement
YP and SQ performed the research, analyzed the data, and wrote a draft of the manuscript. KB, MG and KH participated in data collection. YW supervised designed the experiment, participated in data analysis. YP and YW wrote the manuscript with inputs from all co-authors. All authors reviewed and approved this submission.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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