An innovative SNP genotyping method adapting to multiple platforms and throughputs
- 2.5k Downloads
An innovative genotyping method designated as semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR (STARP) was developed for genotyping individual SNPs with improved accuracy, flexible throughputs, low operational costs, and high platform compatibility.
Multiplex chip-based technology for genome-scale genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has made great progress in the past two decades. However, PCR-based genotyping of individual SNPs still remains problematic in accuracy, throughput, simplicity, and/or operational costs as well as the compatibility with multiple platforms. Here, we report a novel SNP genotyping method designated semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR (STARP). In this method, genotyping assay was performed under unique PCR conditions using two universal priming element-adjustable primers (PEA-primers) and one group of three locus-specific primers: two asymmetrically modified allele-specific primers (AMAS-primers) and their common reverse primer. The two AMAS-primers each were substituted one base in different positions at their 3′ regions to significantly increase the amplification specificity of the two alleles and tailed at 5′ ends to provide priming sites for PEA-primers. The two PEA-primers were developed for common use in all genotyping assays to stringently target the PCR fragments generated by the two AMAS-primers with similar PCR efficiencies and for flexible detection using either gel-free fluorescence signals or gel-based size separation. The state-of-the-art primer design and unique PCR conditions endowed STARP with all the major advantages of high accuracy, flexible throughputs, simple assay design, low operational costs, and platform compatibility. In addition to SNPs, STARP can also be employed in genotyping of indels (insertion–deletion polymorphisms). As vast variations in DNA sequences are being unearthed by many genome sequencing projects and genotyping by sequencing, STARP will have wide applications across all biological organisms in agriculture, medicine, and forensics.
KeywordsPriming Element Individual SNPs Size Separation Common Reverse Primer Amplification Yield
We thank Drs. Yiqun Weng and Zengcui Zhang for critically reviewing this manuscript. This research was supported by the USDA-ARS National Sclerotinia Initiative, Grant No. 5442-21220-028-00D and the USDA-ARS CRIS Project No. 3060-21000-039-00D. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The experiments were performed in compliance with the current laws of the USA.
- Taylor S, Scott R, Kurtz R, Fisher C, Patel V, Bizouarn F, (2010) A practical guide to high resolution melt analysis genotyping. BioRad Tech Note 6004Google Scholar