Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 129, Issue 2, pp 377–394 | Cite as

Genome-wide linkage mapping of flour color-related traits and polyphenol oxidase activity in common wheat

  • Shengnan Zhai
  • Zhonghu He
  • Weie Wen
  • Hui Jin
  • Jindong Liu
  • Yong Zhang
  • Zhiyong Liu
  • Xianchun XiaEmail author
Original Article


Key message

Fifty-six QTL for flour color-related traits and polyphenol oxidase activity were identified using a genome-wide linkage mapping of data from a RIL population derived from a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 cross.


Flour color-related traits, including L*, a*, b*, yellow pigment content (YPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity are important parameters influencing the quality of wheat end-use products. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits and characterization of candidate genes are important for improving wheat quality. The aims of this study were to identify QTL for flour color-related traits and PPO activity and to characterize candidate genes using a high-density genetic linkage map in a common wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Gaocheng 8901 and Zhoumai 16. A linkage map was constructed by genotyping the RILs with the wheat 90 K iSelect array. Fifty-six QTL were mapped on 35 chromosome regions on homoeologous groups 1, 2, 5 and 7 chromosomes, and chromosomes 3B, 4A, 4B and 6B. Four QTL were for PPO activity, and the others were for flour color-related traits. Compared with previous studies, five QTL for a*, two for b*, one for L*, one for YPC and one for PPO activity were new. The new QTL on chromosome 2DL was involved in both a* and YPC, and another on chromosome 7DS affected both a* and L*. The scan for SNP sequences tightly linked to QTL for flour color-related traits against the wheat and/or related cereals genomes identified six candidate genes significantly related to these traits, and five of them were associated with the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway. The high-density genetic linkage map of Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 represents a useful tool to identify QTL for important quality traits and candidate genes.


Quantitative Trait Locus Common Wheat Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Recombinant Inbred Line Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Broad-sense heritability


Lycopene ε-cyclase


Linkage group


Logarithm of odds


Marker-assisted selection


Mevalonate kinase


Polyphenol oxidase


Phytoene synthase


Quantitative trait loci/locus


Phenotypic variance explained


Recombinant inbred lines


Single nucleotide polymorphism


Yellow pigment content



The authors are grateful to Prof. R. A. McIntosh, Plant Breeding Institute, University of Sydney, for review of this manuscript. The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31461143021), Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Project (D151100004415003), International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (2013DFG30530, 2014DFG31690), International Collaboration Project from Ministry of Agriculture (2011-G3), and China Agriculture Research System (CARS-3-1-3).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in regard to this manuscript.

Ethical standards

We declare that these experiments comply with the ethical standards in China.

Supplementary material

122_2015_2634_MOESM1_ESM.docx (123 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 122 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shengnan Zhai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhonghu He
    • 1
    • 4
  • Weie Wen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hui Jin
    • 1
  • Jindong Liu
    • 1
  • Yong Zhang
    • 1
  • Zhiyong Liu
    • 2
  • Xianchun Xia
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Crop Sciences, National Wheat Improvement CenterChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)BeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding/State Key Laboratory for AgrobiotechnologyChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of AgronomyXinjiang Agricultural UniversityXinjiangChina
  4. 4.International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) China OfficeBeijingChina

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