Genetic analysis of glucosinolate variability in broccoli florets using genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms
The identification of genetic factors influencing the accumulation of individual glucosinolates in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of glucosinolate levels inBrassicavegetables and will accelerate the development of vegetables with glucosinolate profiles tailored to promote human health.
Quantitative trait loci analysis of glucosinolate (GSL) variability was conducted with a B. oleracea (broccoli) mapping population, saturated with single nucleotide polymorphism markers from a high-density array designed for rapeseed (Brassica napus). In 4 years of analysis, 14 QTLs were associated with the accumulation of aliphatic, indolic, or aromatic GSLs in floret tissue. The accumulation of 3-carbon aliphatic GSLs (2-propenyl and 3-methylsulfinylpropyl) was primarily associated with a single QTL on C05, but common regulation of 4-carbon aliphatic GSLs was not observed. A single locus on C09, associated with up to 40 % of the phenotypic variability of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GSL over multiple years, was not associated with the variability of precursor compounds. Similarly, QTLs on C02, C04, and C09 were associated with 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GSL concentration over multiple years but were not significantly associated with downstream compounds. Genome-specific SNP markers were used to identify candidate genes that co-localized to marker intervals and previously sequenced Brassica oleracea BAC clones containing known GSL genes (GSL-ALK, GSL-PRO, and GSL-ELONG) were aligned to the genomic sequence, providing support that at least three of our 14 QTLs likely correspond to previously identified GSL loci. The results demonstrate that previously identified loci do not fully explain GSL variation in broccoli. The identification of additional genetic factors influencing the accumulation of GSL in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of GSL levels in Brassicaceae and will accelerate development of vegetables with modified or enhanced GSL profiles.
- Brown AF, Yousef GG, Jeffery EH, Klein PB, Wallig MA, Kushad MM, Juvik JA (2002) Glucosinolate profiles in broccoli: variation in levels and implications in breeding for cancer chemoprotection. J Am Soc Hort Sci 127:807Google Scholar
- Brown AF, Jeffery EH, Juvik JA (2007) A polymerase chain reaction-based linkage map of broccoli and identification of quantitative trait loci associated with harvest date and head weight. J Am Soc Hort Sci 132:507–513Google Scholar
- Brown A, Yousef G, Chebrolu K, Byrd R, Everhart K, Thomas A, Reid R, Parkin IP, Sharpe A, Oliver R, Guzman I, Jackson E (2014) High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array mapping in Brassica oleracea: identification of QTL associated with carotenoid variation in broccoli florets. Theor Appl Genet 127:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bryant C, Kumar S, Chamala S, Shah J, Pal J, Haider M, Seward S, Qazi A, Morris R, Semaan A, Shammas M, Steffes C, Potti R, Prasad M, Weaver D, Batchu R (2010) Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest by protecting RB-E2F-1 complex in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Mol Cancer 9:47PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hansen BG, Kerwin RE, Ober JA, Lambrix VM, Mitchell-Olds T, Gershenzon J, Halkier BA, Kliebenstein DJ (2008) A novel 2-oxoacid-dependent dioxygenase involved in the formation of the goiterogenic 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate and generalist insect resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 148:2096–2108PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hirai MY, Sugiyama K, Sawada Y, Tohge T, Obayashi T, Suzuki A, Araki R, Sakurai N, Suzuki H, Aoki K, Goda H, Nishizawa OI, Shibata D, Saito K (2007) Omics-based identification of Arabidopsis Myb transcription factors regulating aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:6478–6483PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Skirycz A, Reichelt M, Burow M, Birkemeyer C, Rolcik J, Kopka J, Zanor MI, Gershenzon J, Strnad M, Szopa J, Mueller-Roeber B, Witt I (2006) DOF transcription factor AtDof1.1 (OBP2) is part of a regulatory network controlling glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant J 47:10–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Oojen JW, Boer MP, Jansen RC, Maliepaard C (2002) MapQTL 4.0, software for the calculation of QTL position on genetic maps. Plant Res Int Wagening 198:1085–1095Google Scholar