Pl 17 is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
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Pl 17 , a novel downy mildew resistance gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in sunflowers, was genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome.
Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.). Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in the USA. To determine the chromosomal location of this resistance, 186 F 2:3 families derived from a cross of HA 458 with HA 234 were phenotyped for their resistance to race 734 of P. halstedii. The segregation ratio of the population supported that the resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene, Pl 17 . Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primers were used to identify molecular markers linked to Pl 17 . Bulked segregant analysis using 849 SSR markers located Pl 17 to linkage group (LG) 4, which is the first DM gene discovered in this linkage group. An F2 population of 186 individuals was screened with polymorphic SSR and SNP primers from LG4. Two flanking markers, SNP SFW04052 and SSR ORS963, delineated Pl 17 in an interval of 3.0 cM. The markers linked to Pl 17 were validated in a BC3 population. A search for the physical location of flanking markers in sunflower genome sequences revealed that the Pl 17 region had a recombination frequency of 0.59 Mb/cM, which was a fourfold higher recombination rate relative to the genomic average. This region can be considered amenable to molecular manipulation for further map-based cloning of Pl 17 .
KeywordsSimple Sequence Repeat Marker Downy Mildew Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Rust Resistance Gene Bulk Segregant Analysis
The authors would like to thank Dr. Loren Rieseberg for providing access to the Sunflower Genome Data Repository. We also thank Drs. Brent Hulke and Zengcui Zhang for critical review of the manuscript, and Angelia Hogness for technical assistance. This project was supported by the National Sunflower Association Agreement 12-D02 and the USDA-ARS CRIS Project No. 5442-21000-039-00D. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this report is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. The USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The experiments were performed in compliance with the current laws of the USA.
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