Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 128, Issue 3, pp 489–499 | Cite as

Spot form of net blotch resistance in barley is under complex genetic control

  • Xuemin Wang
  • Emma S. Mace
  • Gregory J. Platz
  • Colleen H. Hunt
  • Lee T. Hickey
  • Jerome D. Franckowiak
  • David R. Jordan
Original Paper


Key message

Evaluation of resistance to Pyrenophora teres f. maculata in barley breeding populations via association mapping revealed a complex genetic architecture comprising a mixture of major and minor effect genes.


In the search for stable resistance to spot form of net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. maculata, SFNB), association mapping was conducted on four independent barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding populations comprising a total of 898 unique elite breeding lines from the Northern Region Barley Breeding Program in Australia for discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing resistance at seedling and adult plant growth stages. A total of 29 significant QTL were validated across multiple breeding populations, with 22 conferring resistance at both seedling and adult plant growth stages. The remaining 7 QTL conferred resistance at either seedling (2 QTL) or adult plant (5 QTL) growth stages only. These 29 QTL represented 24 unique genomic regions, of which five were found to co-locate with previously identified QTL for SFNB. The results indicated that SFNB resistance is controlled by a large number of QTL varying in effect size with large effects QTL on chromosome 7H. A large proportion of the QTL acted in the same direction for both seedling and adult responses, suggesting that phenotypic selection for SFNB resistance performed at either growth stage could achieve adequate levels of resistance. However, the accumulation of specific resistance alleles on several chromosomes must be considered in molecular breeding selection strategies.


Quantitative Trait Locus Association Mapping Adult Plant Quantitative Trait Locus Region DArT Marker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to give thanks to Ms Janet Barsby (DAFFQ), Mr Ryan Fowler (DAFFQ) and Ms Julie McKavanagh (DAFFQ) for technical assistance in the laboratory and field, and to Mr Michael Hassell (DAFFQ) for generating the pedigree diagram of the four breeding populations. We acknowledge funding support from the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) of Australia.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

122_2014_2447_MOESM1_ESM.docx (37 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 37 kb)
122_2014_2447_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (32 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 32 kb)
122_2014_2447_MOESM3_ESM.pptx (541 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PPTX 541 kb)
122_2014_2447_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (79 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (JPEG 79 kb)
122_2014_2447_MOESM5_ESM.jpg (81 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (JPEG 80 kb)
122_2014_2447_MOESM6_ESM.pptx (373 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (PPTX 373 kb)


  1. Butler D, Cullis B, Gilmour A, Gogel B (2009) ASReml-R reference manual, Release 3. In: Technical report, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  2. Cakir M, Gupta S, Li CD, Hayden M, Mather DE, Ablett GA, Platz GJ, Broughton S, Chalmers KJ, Loughman R, Jones MGK, Lance RCM (2011) Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of disease resistance traits in the barley population Baudin x AC metcalfe. Crop Pasture Sci 62:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Darvasi A, Soller M (1997) A simple method to calculate resolving power and confidence interval of QTL map location. Behav Genet 27:125–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Friesen TL, Faris JD, Lai Z, Steffenson BJ (2006) Identification and chromosomal location of major genes for resistance to Pyrenophora teres in a doubled-haploid barley population. Genome 49:855–859CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Grewal T, Rossnagel B, Pozniak C, Scoles G (2008) Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with barley net blotch resistance. Theor Appl Genet 116:529–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Grewal TS, Rossnagel BG, Scoles GJ (2012) Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with spot blotch and net blotch resistance in a doubled-haploid barley population. Mol Breed 30:267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hickey LT, Lawson W, Platz GJ, Dieters M, Arief VN, German S, Fletcher S, Park RF, Singh D, Pereyra S, Franckowiak J (2011) Mapping Rph20: a gene conferring adult plant resistance to Puccinia hordei in barley. Theor Appl Genet 123:55–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hickey LT, Lawson W, Platz GJ, Fowler RA, Arief V, Dieters M, German S, Fletcher S, Park RF, Singh D, Pereyra S, Franckowiak J (2012) Mapping quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to powdery mildew in an Australian barley population. Crop Sci 52:1021–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hollaway G, McLean M (2006) Spot form of net blotch in Victoria, Australia: distribution, management and resistance screening. In: Turkington TK, Orr D, Xi K (eds) Proceedings of the third international workshop on barley leaf blights. Edmonton, Alberta, pp 42–45Google Scholar
  10. Khan TN, Tekauz A (1982) Occurrence and pathogenicity of Drechslera teres isolates causing spot-type symptoms on barley in Western Australia. Plant Dis 66:423–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kleinhofs A (2006) Integrating molecular and morphological/physiological marker maps. Barley Genet Newsl 36:66–82Google Scholar
  12. Liu ZH, Ellwood SR, Oliver RP, Friesen TL (2011) Pyrenophora teres: profile of an increasingly damaging barley pathogen. Mol Plant Pathol 12:1–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu ZH, Zhong S, Stasko AK, Edwards MC, Friesen TL (2012) Virulence profile and genetic structure of a North Dakota population of Pyrenophora teres f. teres, the causal agent of net form net blotch of barley. Phytopathology 102:539–546CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Mace ES, Jordan DR (2011) Integrating sorghum whole genome sequence information with a compendium of sorghum QTL studies reveals uneven distribution of QTL and of gene-rich regions with significant implications for crop improvement. Theor Appl Genet 123:169–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mace ES, Rami JF, Bouchet S, Klein PE, Klein RR, Kilian A, Wenzl P, Xia L, Halloran K, Jordan DR (2009) A consensus genetic map of sorghum that integrates multiple component maps and high-throughput diversity array technology (DArT) markers. BMC Plant Biol 9:13CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Manninen OM, Jalli M, Kalendar R, Schulman A, Afanasenko O, Robinson J (2006) Mapping of major spot-type and net-type net-blotch resistance genes in the Ethiopian barley line CI 9819. Genome 49:1564–1571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mathre DE (1997) Compendium of barley diseases, 2nd edn. American Phytopathological Society, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  18. McLean MS (2011) The epidemiology and control of spot form of net blotch of barley in Victoria, Australia. PhD thesis, The University of MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  19. McLean MS, Howlett BJ, Hollaway GJ (2009) Epidemiology and control of spot form of net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. maculata) of barley: a review. Crop Pasture Sci 60:303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McLean MS, Howlett BJ, Hollaway GJ (2010) Spot form of net blotch, caused by Pyrenophora teres f. maculata, is the most prevalent foliar disease of barley in Victoria, Australia. Australas Plant Path 39:46–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McLean MS, Martin A, Gupta S, Sutherland MW, Hollaway GJ, Platz GJ (2014) Validation of a new spot form of net blotch differential set and evidence for hybridisation between the spot and net forms of net blotch in Australia. Australas Plant Path 43:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Molnar SJ, James LE, Kasha KJ (2000) Inheritance and RAPD tagging of multiple genes for resistance to net blotch in barley. Genome 43:224–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Murray GM, Brennan JP (2010) Estimating disease losses to the Australian barley industry. Australas Plant Path 39:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patterson HD, Thompson R (1971) Recovery of interblock information when block sizes are unequal. Biometrika 31:100–109Google Scholar
  25. Platz GJ, Usher TR (2006) Losses to spot form net blotch in north-eastern Australia. In: Turkington TK, Orr D, Xi K (eds) Proceedings of the third International Workshop on Barley Leaf Blights. Edmonton, Alberta, pp 23–27Google Scholar
  26. Roy JK, Smith KP, Muehlbauer GJ, Chao S, Close TJ, Steffenson BJ (2010) Association mapping of spot blotch resistance in wild barley. Mol Breed 26:243–256CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Smedegård-Petersen V (1971) Pyrenophora teres f. maculata f. nov. and Pyrenophora teres f. teres on barley in Denmark. In: Yearbook of the royal veterinary and agricultural university, Copenhagen, pp 124–144Google Scholar
  28. Smith AB (2011) A whole genome approach for QTL detection using a linear mixed model with correlated marker effects. In: Australian applied statistics conference, Palm CoveGoogle Scholar
  29. Verbyla AP, Cullis BR, Thompson R (2007) The analysis of QTLs by simultaneous use of the full linkage map. Theor Appl Genet 116:95–111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Voorrips RE (2002) MapChart: software for the graphical presentation of linkage maps and QTLs. J Hered 93:77–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. VSN International (2011) GenStat for Windows, 14th edn. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead.
  32. Wenzl P, Li H, Carling J, Zhou M, Raman H, Paul E, Hearnden P, Maier C, Xia L, Caig V, Ovesna J, Cakir M, Poulsen D, Wang J, Raman R, Smith KP, Muehlbauer GJ, Chalmers KJ, Kleinhofs S, Huttner E, Kilian A (2006) A high-density consensus map of barley linking DArT markers to SSR, RFLP and STS loci and agricultural traits. BMC Genom 7:206–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Williams KJ, Lichon A, Gianquitto P, Kretschmer JM, Karakousis A, Manning S, Langridge P, Wallwork H (1999) Identification and mapping of a gene conferring resistance to the spot form of net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f maculata) in barley. Theor Appl Genet 99:323–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Williams KJ, Platz GJ, Barr AR, Cheong J, Willsmore K, Cakir M, Wallwork H (2003) A comparison of the genetics of seedling and adult plant resistance to the spot form of net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. maculata). Aust J Agric Res 54:1387–1394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Res 14:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhou H, Steffenson BJ (2013a) Association mapping of Septoria speckled leaf blotch resistance in US barley breeding germplasm. Phytopathology 103:600–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhou H, Steffenson B (2013b) Genome-wide association mapping reveals genetic architecture of durable spot blotch resistance in US barley breeding germplasm. Mol Breed 32:139–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ziems L, Hickey L, Hunt C, Mace E, Platz GJ, Franckowiak J, Jordan D (2014) Association mapping of resistance to Puccinia hordei in Australia barley breeding germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 127:1199–1212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia as represented by The State of Queensland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuemin Wang
    • 1
  • Emma S. Mace
    • 2
  • Gregory J. Platz
    • 2
  • Colleen H. Hunt
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lee T. Hickey
    • 3
  • Jerome D. Franckowiak
    • 2
    • 4
  • David R. Jordan
    • 1
  1. 1.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, Hermitage Research FacilityThe University of QueenslandWarwickAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and ForestryHermitage Research FacilityWarwickAustralia
  3. 3.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Agronomy and Plant GeneticsUniversity of Minnesota Twin CitiesSt PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations