Complementary epistasis involving Sr12 explains adult plant resistance to stem rust in Thatcher wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
- 578 Downloads
Quantitative trait loci conferring adult plant resistance to Ug99 stem rust in Thatcher wheat display complementary gene action suggesting multiple quantitative trait loci are needed for effective resistance.
Adult plant resistance (APR) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is desirable because this resistance can be Pgt race non-specific. Resistance derived from cultivar Thatcher can confer high levels of APR to the virulent Pgt race TTKSK (Ug99) when combined with stem rust resistance gene Sr57 (Lr34). To identify the loci conferring APR in Thatcher, we evaluated 160 RILs derived from Thatcher crossed to susceptible cultivar McNeal for field stem rust reaction in Kenya for two seasons and in St. Paul for one season. All RILs and parents were susceptible as seedlings to race TTKSK. However, adult plant stem rust severities in Kenya varied from 5 to 80 %. Composite interval mapping identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL). Three QTL were inherited from Thatcher and one, Sr57, was inherited from McNeal. The markers closest to the QTL peaks were used in an ANOVA to determine the additive and epistatic effects. A QTL on 3BS was detected in all three environments and explained 27–35 % of the variation. The peak of this QTL was at the same location as the Sr12 seedling resistance gene effective to race SCCSC. Epistatic interactions were significant between Sr12 and QTL on chromosome arms 1AL and 2BS. Though Sr12 cosegregated with the largest effect QTL, lines with Sr12 were not always resistant. The data suggest that Sr12 or a linked gene, though not effective to race TTKSK alone, confers APR when combined with other resistance loci.
KeywordsQuantitative Trail Locus Stem Rust Adult Plant Resistance Significant Quantitative Trail Locus Stem Rust Resistance
Funding for this research was provided by the USDA-ARS National Plant Disease Recovery System, the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat project (funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the United Kingdom Department for International Development), and the USDA-AFRI Triticeae Coordinated Agricultural Project (2011-68002-30029). We acknowledge the Computational Genetics Laboratory of the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute for computational support. We are grateful to staff at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and at the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory for maintenance of field experiments. Mention of trademark, proprietary product, or vendor does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the USDA, and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products and vendors that might also be suitable.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.
The authors declare that the experiments comply with the current laws of the countries in which the experiments were performed.
- Green GJ, Dyck PL (1975) The reaction of Thatcher wheat to Canadian races of stem rust. Can Plant Dis Surv 55:85–86Google Scholar
- Hayes HK, Ausemus ER, Stakman EC, Bailey CH, Wilson HK, Bamberg RH, Markley MC, Crim RF, Levine MN (1936) Thatcher wheat. Minn Agric Exp Stn Tech Bull 325Google Scholar
- Jin Y, Singh RP, Ward RW, Wanyera R, Kinyua M, Njau P, Fetch T Jr, Pretorius ZA, Yahyaoui A (2007) Characterization of seedling infection types and adult plant infection responses of monogenic Sr gene lines to race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis 91:1096–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kolmer JA, Dyck PL, Roelfs AP (1991) An appraisal of stem and leaf rust resistance in North American hard red spring wheats and the probability of multiple mutations to virulence in populations of cereal rust fungi. Phytopathology 81:237–239Google Scholar
- Liu W, Rouse M, Friebe B, Jin Y, Gill B, Pumphrey MO (2011b) Discovery and molecular mapping of a new gene conferring resistance to stem rust, Sr53, derived from Aegilops geniculata and characterization of spontaneous translocation stocks with reduced alien chromatin. Chromosome Res 19:669–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Luig NH (1983) A survey of virulence genes in wheat stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Advances in plant breeding, Supplement 11 to Journal of Plant Breeding. Paul Parey, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- McIntosh RA, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Morris CF, Appels R, Xia XC (2012) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat: 2012 supplement. Annu Wheat Newslett 58:259–279Google Scholar
- Qi LL, Pumphrey MO, Friebe B, Zhang P, Qian C, Bowden RL, Rouse MN, Jin Y, Gill BS (2011) A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 123:159–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Roelfs AP (1978) Estimated losses caused by rust in small grain cereals in the United States: 1918–76. USDA Miscellaneous Publication, USA 1363Google Scholar
- Roelfs AP, Singh RP, Saari EE (1992) Rust diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management. CIMMYT, MexicoGoogle Scholar
- Sambasivam PK, Bansal UK, Hayden MJ, Dvorak J, Lagudah ES, Bariana HS (2008) Identification of markers linked with stem rust resistance genes Sr33 and Sr45. In: Appels R, Eastwood R, Lagudah E, Langridge P, Mackay M, McIntyre L, Sharp P (eds) Proceedings of 11th international wheat genetics symposium. Sydney University Press, Australia, pp 351–353Google Scholar
- Singh A, Knox RE, DePauw RM, Singh AK, Cuthbert RD, Campbell HL, Singh D, Bhavani S, Fetch T, Clarke F (2013a) Identification and mapping in spring wheat of genetic factors controlling stem rust resistance and the study of their epistatic interactions across multiple environments. Theor Appl Genet 126:1951–1964PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singh A, Pandey MP, Singh AK, Knox RE, Ammar K, Clarke JM, Clarke FR, Singh RP, Pozniak CJ, DePauw RM, McCallum BD, Cuthbert RD, Randhawa HS, Fetch TG Jr (2013b) Identification and mapping of leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance quantitative trait loci and their interactions in durum wheat. Mol Breeding 31:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stakman EC, Steward DM, Loegering WQ (1962) Identification of physiologic races of Puccinia graminis var. tritici. USDA Agric Res Serv E-617Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2010) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org
- Wang S, Basten CJ, Zeng ZB (2007) Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5. Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. http://statgen.ncsu.edu/qtlcart/WQTLCart.htm
- Yu L, Barbier H, Rouse MN, Singh S, Singh RP, Bhavani S, Huerta-Espino J, Sorrells ME (2014) A consensus map for Ug99 stem rust resistance loci in wheat. Theor Appl Genet. doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2326-7 (companion paper)
- Zheng ZB (1994) Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci. Genetics 136:1457–1468Google Scholar