Development of InDel markers for Brassica rapa based on whole-genome re-sequencing
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Genome-wide detection of short insertion/deletion length polymorphisms (InDels, <5 bp) in Brassica rapa (named the A genome) was performed by comparing whole-genome re-sequencing data from two B. rapa accessions, L144 and Z16, to the reference genome sequence of Chiifu-401-42. In total, we identified 108,558 InDel polymorphisms between Chiifu-401-42 and L144, 26,795 InDels between Z16 and Chiifu-401-42, and 26,693 InDels between L144 and Z16. From these, 639 InDel polymorphisms of 3–5 bp in length between L144 and Z16 were selected for experimental validation; 491 (77 %) yielded single PCR fragments and showed polymorphisms, 7 (1 %) did not amplify a product, and 141 (22 %) showed no polymorphism. For further validation of these intra-specific InDel polymorphisms, 503 candidates, randomly selected from the 639 InDels, were screened across seven accessions representing different B. rapa cultivar groups. Of these assayed markers, 387 (77 %) were polymorphic, 111 (22 %) were not polymorphic and 5 (1 %) did not amplify a PCR product. Furthermore, we randomly selected 518 InDel markers to validate their polymorphism in B. napus (the AC genome) and B. juncea (the AB genome), of which more than 90 % amplified a PCR product; 132 (25 %) showed polymorphism between the two B. napus accessions and 41 (8 %) between the two B. juncea accessions. This set of novel PCR-based InDel markers will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and breeding programs in B. rapa.
KeywordsReference Genome Sequence InDel Marker InDel Polymorphism Polymorphism Rate InDel Length
The authors wish to thank Graham J King for valuable suggestions for manuscript correction. This work was supported by National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program, No. 2008AA10Z155) and Core Research Budget of the Non-profit Governmental Research Institution (ICS, CAAS, 1610032011011). This work was done in the Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticulture Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, People’s Republic of China and the Sino-Dutch Joint Lab of Horticulture Genomics Technology in Beijing.
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