Identification of novel quantitative trait loci for days to ear emergence and flag leaf glaucousness in a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) population adapted to southern Australian conditions
- 1.4k Downloads
In southern Australia, where the climate is predominantly Mediterranean, achieving the correct flowering time in bread wheat minimizes the impact of in-season cyclical and terminal drought. Flag leaf glaucousness has been hypothesized as an important component of drought tolerance but its value and genetic basis in locally adapted germplasm is unknown. From a cross between Kukri and RAC875, a doubled-haploid (DH) population was developed. A genetic linkage map consisting of 456 DArT and SSR markers was used to detect QTL affecting time to ear emergence and Zadoks growth score in seven field experiments. While ear emergence time was similar between the parents, there was significant transgressive segregation in the population. This was the result of segregation for the previously characterized Ppd-D1a and Ppd-B1 photoperiod responsive alleles. QTL of smaller effect were also detected on chromosomes 1A, 4A, 4B, 5A, 5B, 7A and 7B. A novel QTL for flag leaf glaucousness of large, repeatable effect was detected in six field experiments, on chromosome 3A (QW.aww-3A) and accounted for up to 52 percent of genetic variance for this trait. QW.aww-3A was validated under glasshouse conditions in a recombinant inbred line population from the same cross. The genetic basis of time to ear emergence in this population will aid breeders’ understanding of phenological adaptation to the local environment. Novel loci identified for flag leaf glaucousness and the wide phenotypic variation within the DH population offers considerable scope to investigate the impact and value of this trait for bread wheat production in southern Australia.
KeywordsQuantitative Trait Locus Doubled Haploid Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Flag Leaf
Authors would like to thank the staff at Australian Grain Technologies, for managing the field experiments in South Australia. Thank you to Dr. Matthew Hayden and Gai McMichael, Molecular Plant Breeding Collaborative Research Centre, who assisted with genotyping and linkage map development. Many thanks also to Mayra Jacqueline Barcelo and Tamara Urbalejo Rodriguez, CIMMYT, for dedicated management and phenotyping of the population in Obregon, Mexico in 2007. Thanks to Ardashir Kharabian Masouleh for assistance in collecting phenotypic data from the field experiments in Australia in 2006. While conducting this research, A. Izanloo was supported by a PhD scholarship from the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran (MSRTI) and T. Schnurbusch partly supported by a Research Fellowship, Feodor-Lynen-Program, from the Alexander-von-Humboldt Foundation, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany, and partly by the Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, Adelaide, Australia. We would like to thank the Grains Research and Development Corporation, the Australian Research Council and the South Australian State Government for funding this research.
- Akbari M, Wenzl P, Caig V, Carling J, Xia L, Yang SY, Uszynski G, Mohler V, Lehmensiek A, Kuchel H, Hayden MJ, Howes N, Sharp P, Vaughan P, Rathmell B, Huttner E, Kilian A (2006) Diversity arrays technology (DArT) for high-throughput profiling of the hexaploid wheat genome. Theor Appl Genet 113:1409–1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Griffiths S, Simmonds J, Leverington M, Wang Y, Fish L, Sayers L, Alibert L, Orford S, Wingen L, Herry L, Faure S, Laurie D, Bilham L, Snape J (2009) Meta-QTL analysis of the genetic control of ear emergence in elite European winter wheat germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 119:383–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Loss SP, Siddique KHM (1994) Morphological and physiological traits associated with wheat yield increases in Mediterranean environments. In: Advances in agronomy, vol 52. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 229–276Google Scholar
- McIntosh RA, Yamazaki Y, Devos KM, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Appels R (2003) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. Tenth International Wheat Genetics Symposium, PaestumGoogle Scholar
- Quarrie SA, Steed A, Calestani C, Semikhodskii A, Lebreton C, Chinoy C, Steele N, Pljevljakusic D, Waterman E, Weyen J, Schondelmaier J, Habash DZ, Farmer P, Saker L, Clarkson DT, Abugalieva A, Yessimbekova M, Turuspekov Y, Abugalieva S, Tuberosa R, Sanguineti MC, Hollington PA, Aragues R, Royo A, Dodig D (2005) A high-density genetic map of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the cross Chinese Spring × SQ1 and its use to compare QTLs for grain yield across a range of environments. Theor Appl Genet 110:865–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Richards RA (1984) Glaucousness in wheat, its effect on yield and related characteristics in dryland environments, and its control by minor genes. In: Sakamoto S (ed) Proceedings of 6th international wheat genetics symposium, Kyoto, Japan, pp 447–451Google Scholar
- Richards RA, Rawson HM, Johnson DA (1986) Glaucousness in wheat - its development and effect on water use efficiancy, gas exchange and photsynthetic tissue temperatures. Aust J Plant Physiol 13:465–473Google Scholar