Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 122, Issue 3, pp 649–658 | Cite as

Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.)

  • Kristin Simons
  • Zewdie Abate
  • Shiaoman Chao
  • Wenjun Zhang
  • Matt Rouse
  • Yue Jin
  • Elias Elias
  • Jorge Dubcovsky
Original Paper


Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease, breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to increase resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999 is virulent on most of the resistance genes currently deployed, and is rapidly spreading to other regions of the world. It is therefore important to identify, map, and deploy resistance genes that are still effective against TTKSK. One of these resistance genes, Sr13, was previously assigned to the long arm of chromosome 6A, but its precise map location was not known. In this study, the genome location of Sr13 was determined in four tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum) mapping populations involving the TTKSK resistant varieties Kronos, Kofa, Medora and Sceptre. Our results showed that resistance was linked to common molecular markers in all four populations, suggesting that these durum lines carry the same resistance gene. Based on its chromosome location and infection types against different races of stem rust, this gene is postulated to be Sr13. Sr13 was mapped within a 1.2–2.8 cM interval (depending on the mapping population) between EST markers CD926040 and BE471213, which corresponds to a 285-kb region in rice chromosome 2, and a 3.1-Mb region in Brachypodium chromosome 3. These maps will be the foundation for developing high-density maps, identifying diagnostic markers, and positional cloning of Sr13.


Simple Sequence Repeat Marker Durum Wheat Stem Rust Stem Rust Resistance Durum Wheat Cultivar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This project was supported in part by funds provided through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to Cornell University for the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat (DRRW) Project (JD), in part by the National Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2009-65300-05640 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (JD), and in part by USDA-ARS CRIS project 5442-22000-030-00D (SC).

Supplementary material

122_2010_1444_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (192 kb)
Resistance sources used, and the pedigree and year of release information for cultivars and germplasm developed in North Dakota durum wheat breeding program. Boxes indicate founders for the germplasm used in the study, and circles indicate the resistant parents used in the mapping populations (PDF 191 kb)


  1. Chao S, Zhang W, Dubcovsky J, Sorrells M (2007) Evaluation of genetic diversity and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among US wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm representing different market classes. Crop Sci 47:1018–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chao S, Zhang W, Akhunov E, Sherman J, Ma Y, Luo M-C, Dubcovsky J (2009) Analysis of gene-derived SNP marker polymorphism in US wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Mol Breed 23:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen X, Levine L, Kwok P-Y (1999) Fluorescence polarization in homogeneous nucleic acid analysis. Genome Res 9:492–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Jin Y, Singh RP, Ward RW, Wanyera R, Kinyua MG, Njau P, Fetch T Jr, Pretorius ZA, Yahyaoui A (2007) Characterization of seedling infection types and adult plant infection responses of monogenic Sr gene lines to race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis 91:1096–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jin Y, Szabo LJ, Pretorius ZA, Singh RP, Ward R, Fetch T Jr (2008) Detection of virulence to resistance gene Sr24 within race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis 92:923–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jin Y, Szabo L, Rouse M, Fetch T Jr, Pretorius ZA, Wanyera R, Njau P (2009) Detection of virulence to resistance gene Sr36 within race TTKS lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis 93:367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Klindworth DL, Miller JD, Xu SS (2006) Registration of Rusty durum wheat. Crop Sci 46:1012–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Klindworth DL, Miller JD, Jin Y, Xu SS (2007) Chromosomal locations of genes for stem rust resistance in monogenic lines derived from tetraploid wheat accession ST464. Crop Sci 47:1441–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Knott DR (1962) The inheritance of rust resistance: IX. The inheritance of resistance to races 15B and 56 of stem rust in the wheat variety Khapstein. Can J Plant Sci 42:415–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Knott DR (1989) The wheat rust—breeding for resistance. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Knott DR (1990) Near-isogenic lines of wheat carrying genes for stem rust resistance. Crop Sci 30:901–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincoln SE, Nerburg L (1987) MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1:174–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Leonard KJ (2001) Stem rust—future enemy? In: Peterson PD (ed) Stem rust of wheat: from ancient enemy to modern foe. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, pp 119–146Google Scholar
  14. Liu S, Yu L-X, Singh RP, Jin Y, Sorrells ME, Anderson JA (2009) Diagnostic and co-dominant PCR markers for wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr25 and Sr26. Theor Appl Genet 120:691–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mago R, Spielmeyer W, Lawrence GJ, Lagudah ES, Ellis JG, Pryor A (2002) Identification and mapping of molecular markers linked to rust resistance genes located on chromosome 1RS of rye using wheat-rye translocation lines. Theor Appl Genet 104:1317–1324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Mago R, Bariana HS, Dundas IS, Spielmeyer W, Lawrence GJ, Pryor AJ, Ellis JG (2005) Development of PCR markers for the selection of wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr24 and Sr26 in diverse wheat germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 111:496–504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mago R, Zhang P, Bariana HS, Verlin DC, Bansal UK, Ellis JG, Dundas IS (2009) Development of wheat lines carrying stem rust resistance gene Sr39 with reduced Aegilops speltoides chromatin and simple PCR markers for marker-assisted selection. Theor Appl Genet 119:1441–1450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McIntosh RA (1972) Cytogentical studies in wheat: VI. Chromosome location and linkage studies involving Sr13 and Sr8 for reaction to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Aust J Biol Sci 25:763–765Google Scholar
  19. McIntosh RA, Wellings CR, Park RF (1995) Wheat rusts: an atlas of resistance genes. CSIRO, Australia, pp 108–109Google Scholar
  20. McIntosh RA, Yamazaki Y, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Morris CF, Somers D, Appels R, Devos KM (2008) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. In: McIntosh RA (ed) Gene symbols.
  21. Nazari K, Mafi M, Yahyaoui A, Singh RP, Park RF (2009) Detection of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) race TTKSK (Ug99) in Iran. Plant Dis 93:317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pretorius ZA, Singh RP, Wagoire WW, Payne TS (2000) Detection of virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr31 in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Uganda. Plant Dis 84:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rowell JB (1984) Controlled infection by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici under artificial conditions. In: Bushnell WR, Roelf AP (eds) The cereal rusts, origins, specificity, structure, and physiology, vol 1. Academic Press, Orlando, pp 292–332Google Scholar
  24. Seah S, Bariana H, Jahier J, Sivasithamparam K, Lagudah ES (2001) The introgressed segment carrying rust resistance genes Yr17, Lr37 and Sr38 in wheat can be assayed by a cloned disease resistance gene-like sequence. Theor Appl Genet 102:600–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singh RP, Hodson DP, Jin Y, Huerta-Espino J, Kinyua MG, Wanyera R, Njau P, Ward RW (2006) Current status, likely migration and strategies to mitigate the threat to wheat production from race Ug99 (TTKS) of stem rust pathogen. In: CAB reviews: perspectives in agriculture, veterinary science, nutrition and natural resources. 1, No. 054Google Scholar
  26. Spielmeyer W, Sharp PJ, Lagudah ES (2003) Identification and validation of markers linked to broad-spectrum stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Sci 43:333–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stakman EC, Steward DM, Loegering WQ (1962) Identification of physiologic races of Puccinia graminis var. tritici. USDA Agric Res Serv E-617Google Scholar
  28. Tsilo TJ, Jin Y, Anderson JA (2007) Microsatellite markers linked to stem rust resistance allele Sr9a in wheat. Crop Sci 47:2013–2020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tsilo TJ, Jin Y, Anderson JA (2008) Diagnostic microsatellite markers for the detection of stem rust resistance gene Sr36 in diverse genetic backgrounds of wheat. Crop Sci 48:253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tsilo TJ, Chao S, Jin Y, Anderson JA (2009) Identification and validation of SSR markers linked to the stem rust resistance gene Sr6 on the short arm of chromosome 2D in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 118:515–524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Wanyera R, Kinyua MG, Jin Y, Singh R (2006) The spread of stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, with virulence on Sr31 in wheat in Eastern Africa. Plant Dis 90:113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Watson IA, Stewart DM (1956) Sources of wheat stem rust resistance. Agron J 48:526–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Williams ND, Gough FJ (1965) Inheritance of stem rust reaction in a Khapli emmer cross. Crop Sci 5:145–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wu S, Pumphrey M, Bai G (2009) Molecular mapping of stem-rust-resistance gene Sr40 in wheat. Crop Sci 49:1681–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang W, Chao S, Manthey F, Chicaiza O, Brevis JC, Echenique V, Dubcovsky J (2008) QTL analysis of pasta quality using a composite microsatellite—SNP map of durum wheat. Theor Appl Genet 117:1361–1377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristin Simons
    • 1
  • Zewdie Abate
    • 2
  • Shiaoman Chao
    • 1
  • Wenjun Zhang
    • 2
  • Matt Rouse
    • 3
  • Yue Jin
    • 3
    • 4
  • Elias Elias
    • 5
  • Jorge Dubcovsky
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA-ARS, Biosciences Research LaboratoryFargoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  4. 4.USDA-ARS, Cereal Disease LaboratoryUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  5. 5.Department of Plants SciencesNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA

Personalised recommendations