Traits conferring brewing quality are important objectives in malting barley breeding. Beer foam stability is one of the more difficult traits to evaluate due to the requirement for a relatively large amount of grain to be malted and then the experimental costs for subsequent brewing trials. Consequently, foam stability tends to be evaluated with only advanced lines in the final stages of the breeding process. To simplify the evaluation and selection for this trait, efficient DNA makers were developed in this study. Previous studies have suggested that the level of both of the foam-associated proteins Z4 and Z7 were possible factors that influenced beer foam stability. To confirm the relationship between levels of these proteins in beer and foam stability, 24 beer samples prepared from malt made from 10 barley cultivars, were examined. Regression analyses suggested that beer proteins Z4 and Z7 could be positive and negative markers for beer foam stability, respectively. To develop DNA markers associated with contents of proteins Z4 and Z7 in barley grain, nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in barley cultivars in the upstream region of the translation initiation codon, where the promoter region might be located were compared. As a result, 5 and 23 nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were detected in protein Z4 and protein Z7, respectively. By using these polymorphisms, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers were developed. The CAPS markers for proteins Z4 and Z7 were applied to classify the barley grain content of 23 barley cultivars into two protein Z4 (pZ4-H and pZ4-L) and three protein Z7 (the pZ7-H, pZ7-L and pZ7-L2) haplotypes, respectively. Barley cultivars with pZ4-H showed significantly higher levels of protein Z4 in grain, and those with pZ7-L and pZ7-L2 showed significantly lower levels of protein Z7 in grain. Beer foam stability in the cultivars with pZ4-H and pZ7-L was significantly higher than that with pZ4-L and pZ7-H, respectively. Our results indicate that these CAPS markers provide an efficient selection tool for beer foam stability in barley breeding programs.
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We express our deep appreciation to D.E. Evans, University of Tasmania, Australia, for supplying the protein Z7 antibody. We are also grateful to Y. Yamaguchi, N. Yatabe and K. Ito, Bioresources Research and Development Department, Sapporo Breweries, Ltd., for their technical assistance.
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Iimure, T., Kihara, M., Ichikawa, S. et al. Development of DNA markers associated with beer foam stability for barley breeding. Theor Appl Genet 122, 199–210 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-010-1436-0
- Foam Stability
- Cleave Amplify Polymorphic Sequence
- Barley Cultivar
- Cleave Amplify Polymorphic Sequence Marker
- Translation Initiation Codon