Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 120, Issue 7, pp 1315–1333 | Cite as

Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible genotypes of Glycine tomentella during Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection reveals novel rust resistance genes

  • Ruth Elena Soria-Guerra
  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
  • Sungyul Chang
  • James S. Haudenshield
  • Annamalai Padmanaban
  • Sandra Rodriguez-Zas
  • Glen L. Hartman
  • Said A. Ghabrial
  • Schuyler S. Korban
Original Paper


Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a destructive foliar disease in nearly all soybean-producing countries. To identify genes controlling resistance to soybean rust, transcriptome profiling was conducted in resistant and susceptible Glycine tomentella genotypes triggered by P. pachyrhizi infection. Among 38,400 genes monitored using a soybean microarray, at 5% false discovery rate, 1,342 genes were identified exhibiting significant differential expression between uninfected and P. pachyrhizi-infected leaves at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi) in both rust-susceptible and rust-resistant genotypes. Differentially expressed genes were grouped into 12 functional categories, and among those, large numbers relate to basic plant metabolism. Transcripts for genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated early during rust infection. Similarly, genes coding for proteins related to stress and defense responses such as glutathione-S-transferases, peroxidases, heat shock proteins, and lipoxygenases were consistently up-regulated following infection at all four time points. Whereas, subsets of genes involved in cellular transport, cellular communication, cell cycle, and DNA processing were down-regulated. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on randomly selected genes from the different categories confirmed these findings. Of differentially expressed genes, those associated with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway as well as those coding for peroxidases and lipoxygenases were likely to be involved in rust resistance in soybean, and would serve as good candidates for functional studies. These findings provided insights into mechanisms underlying resistance and general activation of plant defense pathways in response to rust infection.


Rust Resistance Rust Resistance Gene Chalcone Synthases WRKY Transcription Factor Rust Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported by a grant received from the United Soybean Board project no. 7262. Funds were also received from the Illinois Council for Food and Agricultural Research (C-FAR) project no. IDA CF07I-016-3-SEN. Partial funding was also received from CONACYT (Mexico) to support scholarship no. 81276.

Supplementary material

122_2009_1258_MOESM1_ESM.xls (30 kb)
Table 1 List of primers used in real-time RT-PCR to confirm differential expression of genes (XLS 29.5 kb)
122_2009_1258_MOESM2_ESM.xls (376 kb)
Table 2 Genes significantly expressed over the four time points (12, 24, 48, and 72 hpi) in susceptible and resistant Glycine tomentella genotypes in response to Phakospora pachyrhizi at p ≤0.05. Induction ratio was expressed as fold change (XLS 376 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth Elena Soria-Guerra
    • 1
  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sungyul Chang
    • 1
  • James S. Haudenshield
    • 3
  • Annamalai Padmanaban
    • 4
  • Sandra Rodriguez-Zas
    • 5
  • Glen L. Hartman
    • 1
    • 6
  • Said A. Ghabrial
    • 4
  • Schuyler S. Korban
    • 1
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSLPMéxico
  3. 3.Department of Crop SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Animal SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  6. 6.USDA Agricultural Research ServiceUrbanaUSA
  7. 7.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

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