Structural and functional characterization of a winter malting barley
- 371 Downloads
The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge. To obtain an understanding of the relationship between loci controlling winter hardiness and malt quality and to assess the potential for breeding winter malting barley varieties, we structurally and functionally characterized the six-row accession “88Ab536”, a cold-tolerant line with superior malting quality characteristics that derives from the cross of NE76129/Morex//Morex. We used 4,596 SNPs to construct the haplotype structure of 88Ab536 on which malting quality and winter hardiness loci reported in the literature were aligned. The genomic regions determining malting quality and winter hardiness traits have been defined in this founder germplasm, which will assist breeders in targeting regions for marker-assisted selection. The Barley1 GeneChip array was used to functionally characterize 88Ab536 during malting. Its gene expression profile was similar to that of the archetypical malting variety Morex, which is consistent with their similar malting quality characteristics. The characterization of 88Ab536 has increased our understanding of the genetic relationships of malting quality and winter hardiness, and will provide a genetic foundation for further development of more cold-tolerant varieties that have malt quality characteristics that meet or exceed current benchmarks.
KeywordsQuantitative Trait Locus Haplotype Structure Malting Barley Winter Hardiness Malting Quality
We thank Dr. Darrell Wesenberg for the persistence and skillful plant breeding that led to the development of 88Ab536. We also appreciate the resources provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute. L. Cistué is recipient of a Senior Research Fellow at the Oregon State University from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. This research was supported by grants from the USDA-CSREES United States Barley Genome Project to GJM and KPS. SNP genotyping of 88Ab536 and Morex was supported by the Barley Coordinated Agriculture Project grant (USDA-CSREES-NRI Grant No 2006-55606-16722).
- American Society of Brewing Chemists (2004) Methods of analysis, 9th ed. Barley-7C protein by combustion; malt-4 extract, -6a diastatic power, -7a alpha amylase, -17 protein in unhopped wort by spectrophotometry, -18 β-glucan in congress wort by fluorescence. The Society, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
- Bamforth CW, Barclay AHP (1993) Malting technology and the uses of malt. In: McGregor A, Bhatty RS (eds) Barley: chemistry and technology. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, pp 297–354Google Scholar
- Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc Ser B 57:289–300Google Scholar
- Burger WC, LaBerge DE (1985) Malting and brewing quality. In: Rasmusson DC (ed) Barley. Agronomy monograph No. 26. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, pp 367–401Google Scholar
- Hayes PM, Jones BL (2000) Malting quality from a QTL perspective. In: 8th International barley genetics symposium, vol 8, Adelaide Convention Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, pp 99–105Google Scholar
- Hayes PM, Liu BH, Knapp SJ, Chen F, Jones B, Blake T, Frankckowiak J, Rasmusson D, Sorrells M, Ullrich SE, Wesenberg D, Kleinhofs A (1993) Quantitative trait locus effects and environmental interaction in a sample of North American barley germ plasm. Theor Appl Genet 87:392–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hayes MP, Castro A, Marquez-Cedillo L, Corey A, Henson C, Jones BL, Kling J, Mather D, Matus I, Rossi C, Sato K (2003) Genetic diversity for quantitatively inherited agronomic and malting quality traits. In: von Bothmer R, van Hintum T, Knüpffer H, Sato K (eds) Diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 201–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lapitan NLV, Hess A, Cooper B, Botha AM, Badillo D, Iyer H, Menert J, Close TJ, Wright L, Hanning G, Tahir M, Lawrence C (2009) Differentially expressed genes during malting and correlation with malting quality phenotypes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor Appl Genet 118:937–952CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Szűcs P, Skinner JS, Karsai I, Cuesta-Marcos A, Haggard KG, Corey AE, Chen THH, Hayes PM (2007) Validation of the VRN-H2/VRN-H1 epistatic model in barley reveals that intron length variation in VRN-H1 may account for a continuum of vernalization sensitivity. Mol Genet Genomics 277:249–261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Szűcs P, Filichkin T, Cuesta-Marcos A, Hayes PM, Barley CAP (2008) Allele structure of the vernalization and photoperiod loci in the barley CAP core germplasm array. In: Plant and animal genome XV conference, January 12–16, San Diego, CA, USAGoogle Scholar