Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 120, Issue 4, pp 691–697 | Cite as

Diagnostic and co-dominant PCR markers for wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr25 and Sr26

  • Sixin Liu
  • Long-Xi Yu
  • Ravi P. Singh
  • Yue Jin
  • Mark E. Sorrells
  • James A. Anderson
Original Paper


Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. A new race of the pathogen named TTKSK (syn. Ug99) and its derivatives detected in East Africa are virulent to many designated and undesignated stem rust resistance genes. The emergence and spread of those races pose an imminent threat to wheat production worldwide. Genes Sr25 and Sr26 transferred into wheat from Thinopyrum ponticum are effective against these new races. DNA markers for Sr25 and Sr26 are needed to pyramid both genes into adapted germplasm. The previously published dominant markers Gb for Sr25 and Sr26#43 for Sr26 were validated with eight wheat lines with or without Sr25 or Sr26. We tested six published STS (sequence tagged site) markers amplifying diagnostic bands of Th. ponticum. Marker BF145935 consistently amplified well and can be used as a co-dominant marker for Sr25. Among 16 STS markers developed from wheat ESTs mapped to deletion bin 6AL8-0.90-1.00, none was co-dominant for tagging Sr26. However, five 6A-specific markers were identified. Multiplex PCR with marker Sr26#43 and 6A-specific marker BE518379 can be used as a co-dominant marker for Sr26. The co-dominant markers for Sr25 and Sr26 were validated with 37 lines with known stem rust resistance genes. A diverse set of germplasm consisting 170 lines from CIMMYT, China, USA and other counties were screened with the co-dominant markers for Sr25 and Sr26. Five lines with the diagnostic fragment for Sr25 were identified, and they all have ‘Wheatear’ in their pedigrees, which is known to carry Sr25. None of the 170 lines tested had Sr26, as expected.


Stem Rust Wheat Line Rust Resistance Gene Marker Genotype Stem Rust Resistance Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study is a part of the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat Project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. We would like to thank Drs. Zhonghu He, Ian S. Dundas for providing Chinese wheat lines and the Sr26-containing lines with shortened alien segment used in this study, and Jennifer A. Gee for her technical support in the lab.


  1. Ayala-Navarrete L, Bariana HS, Singh RP, Gibson JM, Mechanicos AA, Larkin PJ (2007) Trigenomic chromosomes by recombination of Thinopyrum intermedium and Th. ponticum translocations in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 116:63–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bariana HS, Brown GN, Bansal UK, Miah H, Standen GE, Lu M (2007) Breeding triple rust resistant wheat cultivars for Australia using conventional and marker-assisted selection technologies. Aust J Agric Res 58:576–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cauderon Y, Saigne B, Dauge M (1973) The resistance to wheat rusts of Agropyron intermedium and its use in wheat improvement. In: Sears ER, Sears LMS (eds) Proceedings of the 4th international wheat genetics symposium, Columbia, Missouri, USA, pp 401–407Google Scholar
  4. Dundas IS, Anugrahwati DR, Verlin DC, Park RF, Bariana HS, Mago R, Islam AKMR (2007) New sources of rust resistance from alien species: meliorating linked defects and discovery. Aust J Agric Res 58:545–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Friebe B, Jiang J, Knott DR, Gill BS (1994) Compensation indexes of radiation-induced wheat Agropyron elongatum translocations conferring resistance to leaf rust and stem rust. Crop Sci 34:400–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jin Y, Singh RP (2006) Resistance in US wheat to recent eastern African isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici with virulence to resistance gene Sr31. Plant Dis 90:476–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jin Y, Singh RP, Ward RW, Wanyera R, Kinyua M, Njau P, Pretorius ZA (2007) Characterization of seedling infection types and adult plant infection responses of monogenic Sr gene lines to race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f sp. tritici. Plant Dis 91:1096–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jin Y, Szabo LJ, Pretorius ZA, Singh RP, Ward R, Fetch T Jr (2008) Detection of virulence to resistance gene Sr24 within race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f sp. tritici. Plant Dis 92:923–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jin Y, Szabo LJ, Rouse MN, Fetch T Jr, Pretorius ZA, Wanyera R, Njau P (2009) Detection of virulence to resistance gene Sr36 within the TTKS race lineage of Puccinia graminis f sp. tritici. Plant Dis 93:367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Knott DR (1961) The inheritance of rust resistance VI. The transfer of stem rust resistance from Agropyron elongatum to common wheat. Can J Plant Sci 41:109–123Google Scholar
  11. Knott DR (1980) Mutation of a gene for yellow pigment linked to Lr19 in wheat. Can J Genet Cytol 22:651–654Google Scholar
  12. Liu S, Anderson JA (2003) Marker assisted evaluation of Fusarium head blight resistant wheat germplasm. Crop Sci 43:760–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mago R, Bariana HS, Dundas IS, Spielmeyer W, Lawrence GJ, Pryor AJ, Ellis JG (2005) Development of PCR markers for the selection of wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr24 and Sr26 in diverse wheat germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 111:496–504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin RH (1971) Eagle—a new wheat variety. Agric Gaz NSW 82:206–207Google Scholar
  15. McIntosh RA, Wellings CR, Park RF (1995) Wheat rust: an atlas of resistance genes. CSIRO, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  16. Monneveux P, Reynolds MP, Aguilar JG, Singh RP (2003) Effects of the 7DL.7Ag translocation from Lophopyrum elongatum on wheat yield and related morphophysiological traits under different environments. Plant Breed 122:379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pretorius ZA, Singh RP, Wagoire WW, Payne TS (2000) Detection of virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr31 in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Uganda. Plant Dis 84:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Prins R, Groenewald JZ, Marais GF, Snape JW, Koebner RMD (2001) AFLP and STS tagging of Lr19, a gene conferring resistance to leaf rust in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 103:618–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Qi LL, Echalier B, Chao S, Lazo GR, Butler GE, Anderson OD, Akhunov ED, Dvorak J, Linkiewicz AM, Ratnasiri A, Dubcovsky J, Bermudez-Kandianis CE, Greene RA, Kantety R, La Rota CM, Munkvold JD, Sorrells SF, Sorrells ME, Dilbirligi M, Sidhu D, Erayman M, Randhawa HS, Sandhu D, Bondareva SN, Gill KS, Mahmoud AA, Ma XF, Miftahudin GustafsonJP, Conley EJ, Nduati V, Gonzalez-Hernandez JL, Anderson JA, Peng JH, Lapitan NLV, Hossain KG, Kalavacharla V, Kianian SF, Pathan MS, Zhang DS, Nguyen HT, Choi DW, Fenton RD, Close TJ, McGuire PE, Qualset CO, Gill BS (2004) A chromosome bin map of 16,000 expressed sequence tag loci and distribution of genes among the three genomes of polyploid wheat. Genetics 168:701–712CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ (2000) Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. In: Krawetz S, Misener S (eds) Bioinformatics methods, protocols: methods in molecular biology. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 365–386Google Scholar
  21. Sears ER (1966) Nullisomic-tetrasomic combination in hexaploid wheat. In: Riley R, Lewis KR (eds) Chromosome manipulation and plant genetics. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, pp 29–45Google Scholar
  22. Sharma D, Knott DR (1966) The transfer of leaf rust resistance from Agropyron to Triticum by irradiation. Can J Genet Cytol 8:137–143Google Scholar
  23. Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Rajaram S, Crossa J (1998) Agronomic effects from chromosome translocations 7DL.7Ag and 1BL.1RS in spring wheat. Crop Sci 38:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Singh RP, Hodson DP, Jin Y, Huerta-Espino J, Kinyua MG, Wanyera R, Njau P, Ward RW (2006) Current status, likely migration and strategies to mitigate the threat to wheat production from race Ug99 (TTKS) of stem rust pathogen. CAB Rev Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Resour 1(054):13Google Scholar
  25. The TT, Latter BDH, McIntosh RA, Ellison FW, Brennan PS, Fisher J, Hollamby GJ, Rathjen AJ, Wilson RE (1988) Grain yields of near isogenic lines with added genes for stem rust resistance. In: Miller TE, Koebner RMD (eds) Proceedings of the 7th international wheat genetics symposium. Bath Pres, Bath, pp 901–909Google Scholar
  26. Wanyera R, Kinyua MG, Jin Y, Singh RP (2006) The spread of stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, with virulence on Sr31 in wheat in Eastern Africa. Plant Dis 90:113CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sixin Liu
    • 1
  • Long-Xi Yu
    • 2
  • Ravi P. Singh
    • 3
  • Yue Jin
    • 4
  • Mark E. Sorrells
    • 2
  • James A. Anderson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and Plant GeneticsUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant Breeding and GeneticsCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)Mexico D.F.Mexico
  4. 4.USDA-ARS Cereal Disease LaboratoryUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations