Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 120, Issue 3, pp 543–552

Vrn-D4 is a vernalization gene located on the centromeric region of chromosome 5D in hexaploid wheat

  • Tetsuya Yoshida
  • Hidetaka Nishida
  • Jie Zhu
  • Rebecca Nitcher
  • Assaf Distelfeld
  • Yukari Akashi
  • Kenji Kato
  • Jorge Dubcovsky
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00122-009-1174-3

Cite this article as:
Yoshida, T., Nishida, H., Zhu, J. et al. Theor Appl Genet (2010) 120: 543. doi:10.1007/s00122-009-1174-3

Abstract

Natural variation in wheat requirement of long exposures to cold temperatures to accelerate flowering (vernalization) is mainly controlled by the Vrn-1, Vrn-2, Vrn-3, and Vrn-4 loci. The first three loci have been well characterized, but limited information is available for Vrn-4. So far, natural variation for Vrn-4 has been detected only in the D genome (Vrn-D4), and genetic stocks for this gene are available in Triple Dirk (TDF, hereafter). We detected heterogeneity in the Vrn-1 alleles present in different TDF stocks, which may explain inconsistencies among previous studies. A correct TDF seed stock from Japan carrying recessive vrn-A1, vrn-B1, and vrn-D1 alleles was crossed with three different winter cultivars to generate F2 mapping populations. Most of the variation in flowering time in these three populations was controlled by a single locus, Vrn-D4, which was mapped within a 1.8 cM interval flanked by markers Xcfd78 and Xbarc205 in the centromeric region of chromosome 5D. A factorial ANOVA for heading time using Vrn-D4 alleles and vernalization as factors showed a significant interaction (P < 0.0001), which confirmed that the Vrn-D4 effect on flowering time is modulated by vernalization. Comparison of the different Triple Dirk stocks revealed that Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, and Vrn-D4 all have a small residual response to vernalization, but Vrn-D4 differs from the other two in its response to short vernalization periods. The precise mapping and characterization of Vrn-D4 presented here represent a first step toward the positional cloning of this gene.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tetsuya Yoshida
    • 1
  • Hidetaka Nishida
    • 1
  • Jie Zhu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rebecca Nitcher
    • 3
  • Assaf Distelfeld
    • 3
  • Yukari Akashi
    • 1
  • Kenji Kato
    • 1
  • Jorge Dubcovsky
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of Natural Science and TechnologyOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Plant Genetics and BreedingChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Plant Sciences DepartmentUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA

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