Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 119, Issue 4, pp 645–662 | Cite as

A quantitative genetic study for elucidating the contribution of glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase and other nitrogen-related physiological traits to the agronomic performance of common wheat

  • Jean-Xavier Fontaine
  • Catherine Ravel
  • Karine Pageau
  • Emmanuel Heumez
  • Frédéric Dubois
  • Bertrand Hirel
  • Jacques Le GouisEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

To better understand the genetic variability for nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat is a necessity in the frame of the present economic and ecological context. The objective of this work was to investigate the role of the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and other nitrogen (N)-related physiological traits in the control of agronomic performance in wheat. A quantitative genetics approach was developed using the Arche × Récital population of doubled haploid lines grown for 3 years in the field. GS and GDH activities, ammonium, amino acid and protein contents were measured at different stages of plant development in different organs after flowering. Significant genotypic effects were observed for all measured physiological and agronomical traits. Heading date was negatively correlated with ammonium, amino acid, protein contents and GS activity in the flag leaf lamina. Grain protein content was positively correlated with both ammonium and amino acid content, and to a lesser extent with soluble protein content and GS activity. A total of 148 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, 104 QTLs for physiological traits and 44 QTLs for agronomic traits. Twenty-six QTLs were detected for GDH activity spread over 13 chromosomes and 25 QTLs for GS activity spread over 12 chromosomes. We found only a co-localization between a QTL for GS activity and GSe, a structural gene encoding cytosolic GS on chromosome 4B. A coincidence between a QTL for GDH activity and a gene encoding GDH was also found on chromosome 2B. QTL regions combining both physiological and agronomical QTLs were mainly identified on linkage groups 2A, 2B, 2D, 5A, 5B and 5D. This approach allowed us to propose possible functions of physiological traits to explain the variation observed for agronomic traits including yield and its components.

Keywords

Glutamine Synthetase Flag Leaf Physiological Trait Glutamine Synthetase Activity Grain Protein Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

14DAF

14 days after flowering

28DAF

28 days after flowering

DHL

Doubled haploid line

DM

Dry matter

DW

Dry weight

FL

Flowering

GDH

Glutamate dehydrogenase

GS

Glutamine synthetase

LOD

Logarithm of the odd ratio

N

Nitrogen

NUE

Nitrogen use efficiency

QTL

Quantitative trait locus

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

Abbreviations of the 16 traits studied

A

Flag leaf lamina area

AA

Amino acids

C

Carbon in flag leaf lamina

CN

Carbon nitrogen ratio in flag leaf lamina

DTH

Heading date

DW

Flag leaf lamina dry weight

FLS

Flag leaf lamina senescence

GDHDM

Glutamate dehydrogenase activity expressed per dry matter

GDHPR

Glutamate dehydrogenase activity expressed per protein

GPC

Grain protein content

GPS

Grain number per spike

GSDM

Glutamine synthetase activity expressed per dry matter

GSPR

Glutamine synthetase activity expressed per protein

N

Nitrogen content of the flag leaf lamina

NH4+

Ammonium

PROT

Protein content of the flag leaf

QPG

Quantity of protein per grain

TKW

Thousand kernel weight

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Dimah Habash and Professor Peter Lea for their valuable comments and suggestions on the manuscript. We thank Damien Bouthors, Dominique Brasseur and Jean-Pierre Noclerc for their technical assistance. Financial support by the Conseil Régional de Picardie (IBFBio project no. 2005.2) is greatly acknowledged.

Supplementary material

122_2009_1076_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (34 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 33 kb)
122_2009_1076_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (5 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 5 kb)
122_2009_1076_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (191 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 191 kb)
122_2009_1076_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (29 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 28.9 kb)
122_2009_1076_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (1.9 mb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 1,963 kb)

References

  1. Agrama HAS, Zakaria AG, Said FB, Tuinstra M (1999) Identification of quantitative trait loci for nitrogen use efficiency in maize. Mol Breed 5:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. An D, Su J, Liu Q, Zhu Y, Tong Y, Li J, Jing R, Li B, Li Z (2006) Mapping QTLs for nitrogen uptake in relation to the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Soil 284:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basten CJ, Weir BS, Zeng ZB (1994) Zmap-a QTL cartographer. In: Proceedings of 5th congress on genetics applied to livestock production, vol 22, Guelph, Ontario, pp 65–66Google Scholar
  4. Basten CJ, Weir BS, Zeng ZB (2002) QTL Cartographer Version 1.16Google Scholar
  5. Bernard SM, Moller ALB, Dionisio G, Kichey T, Jahn TP, Dubois F, Baudo M, Lopes MS, Tercé-Laforgue T, Foyer CH, Parry MAJ, Forde BG, Araus JL, Hirel B, Schjoerring JK, Habash DZ (2008) Gene expression. cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Mol Biol 67:89–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernardo R (2004) What proportion of declared QTL in plants are false? Theor Appl Genet 109:419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertin P, Gallais A (2001) Genetic variation for nitrogen use efficiency in a set of recombinant inbred lines. II. QTL detection and coincidences. Maydica 46:53–68Google Scholar
  8. Boisson M, Mondon K, Torney V, Nicot N, Laine AL, Bahrman N, Gouy A, Daniel-Vedele F, Hirel B, Sourdille P, Dardevet M, Ravel C, Le Gouis J (2005) Partial sequences of nitrogen metabolism genes in hexaploid wheat. Theor Appl Genet 110:932–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chantret N, Salse J, Sabot F, Rahman S, Bellec A, Laubin B, Dubois I, Dossat C, Sourdille P, Joudrier P, Gautier M-F, Cattolico L, Beckert M, Aubourg S, Weissenbach J, Caboche M, Bernard M, Leroy P, Chalhoub B (2005) Molecular basis of evolutionary events that shaped the hardness locus in diploid and polyploid wheat species (Triticum and Aegilops). Plant Cell 17:1033–1045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chardon F, Virlon B, Moreau L, Falque M, Joets J, Decousset L, Murigneux A, Charcosset A (2004) Genetic architecture of flowering time in maize as inferred from quantitative trait loci meta-analysis and synteny conservation with the rice genome. Genetics 168:2169–2185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen ZJ (2007) Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for gene expression and phenotypic variation in plant polyploids. Annu Rev Plant Biol 58:377–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Churchill GA, Doerge RW (1994) Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics 138:963–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Coque M, Bertin P, Hirel B, Gallais A (2006) Genetic variation and QTLs for 15N natural abundance in a set of maize recombinant inbred lines. Field Crops Res 97:310–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coque M, Martin A, Veyrieras J, Hirel B, Gallais A (2008) Genetic variation for N-remobilization and postsilking N-uptake in a set of maize recombinant inbred lines. 3. QTL detection and coincidences. Theor Appl Genet 117:729–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cren M, Hirel B (1999) Glutamine synthetase in higher plants regulation of gene and protein expression from the organ to the cell. Plant Cell Physiol 40:1187–1193Google Scholar
  17. Dubois F, Tercé-Laforgue T, Gonzalez-Moro MB, Estavillo JM, Sangwan R, Gallais A, Hirel B (2003) Glutamate dehydrogenase in plants: is there a new story for an old enzyme? Plant Physiol Biochem 41:565–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Endo TR, Gill BS (1996) The deletion stock of common wheat. J Hered 87:295–307Google Scholar
  19. Gallais A, Hirel B (2004) An approach to the genetics of nitrogen use efficiency in maize. J Exp Bot 55:295–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. González FG, Slafer GA, Miralles DJ (2005) Pre-anthesis development and number of fertile florets in wheat as affected by photoperiod sensitivity genes Ppd-D1 and ppd-B1. Euphytica 146:253–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Groos C, Robert N, Bervas E, Charmet G (2003) Genetic analysis of grain protein-content, grain yield and thousand-kernel weight in bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 106:1032–1040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Habash DZ, Massiah AJ, Rong HL, Wallsgrove RM, Leigh RA (2001) The role of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in wheat. Ann Appl Biol 138:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Habash DZ, Bernard S, Schondelmaier J, Weyen J, Quarrie SA (2007) The genetics of nitrogen use in hexaploid wheat: N utilisation, development and yield. Theor Appl Genet 114:403–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hanocq E, Sayers EJ, Niarquin M, Le Gouis J, Charmet G, Gervais L, Dedryver F, Duranton N, Marty N, Dufour P, Rousset M, Worland AJ (2003) A QTL analysis for earliness under field and controlled environment conditions in a bread wheat doubled-haploid population. In: Börner A, Snape J (eds) Proceedings of 12th international European wheat aneuploid cooperative, Norwich, UK, pp 57–59Google Scholar
  25. Hanocq E, Laperche A, Jaminon O, Lainé A-L, Le Gouis J (2007) Most significant genome regions involved in the control of earliness traits in bread wheat, as revealed by QTL meta-analysis. Theor Appl Genet 114:569–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harrison J, de Crescenzo M-AP, Sené O, Hirel B (2003) Does lowering glutamine synthetase activity in nodules modify nitrogen metabolism and growth of Lotus japonicus L. Plant Physiol 133:253–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hirel B, Bertin P, Quilleré I, Bourdoncle W, Attagnant C, Dellay C, Gouy A, Cadiou S, Retailliau C, Falque M, Gallais A (2001) Towards a better understanding of the genetic and physiological basis for nitrogen use efficiency in maize. Plant Physiol 125:1258–1270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hirel B, Le Gouis J, Ney B, Gallais A (2007) The challenge of improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants: towards a more central role for genetic variability and quantitative genetics within integrated approaches. J Exp Bot 58:2369–2387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Holland JB, Nyquist W, Cervantes-Martinez CT (2003) Estimating and interpreting heritability for plant breeding: an update. Plant Breed Rev 22:9–111Google Scholar
  30. Husted S, Hebbern CA, Mattsson M, Schjoerring JK (2000) A critical experimental evaluation of methods for determination of NH4 + in plant tissue, xylem sap and apoplastic fluid. Physiol Plant 109:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Justes E, Mary B, Meynard J-M, Machet J-M, Thelier-Huches L (1994) Determination of a critical nitrogen dilution curve for winter wheat crops. Ann Bot 74:397–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kichey T, Le Gouis J, Sangwan B, Hirel B, Dubois F (2005) Changes in the cellular and subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase during flag leaf senescence in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Cell Physiol 46:964–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kichey T, Heumez E, Pocholle D, Pageau K, Vanacker H, Dubois F, Le Gouis J, Hirel B (2006) Combined agronomic and physiological aspects of nitrogen management in wheat highlight a central role for glutamine synthetase. New Phytol 169:265–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kichey T, Hirel B, Heumez E, Dubois F, Le Gouis J (2007) In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), post-anthesis nitrogen uptake and remobilisation to the grain correlates with agronomic traits and nitrogen physiological markers. Field Crops Res 102:22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kjaer B, Jensen J (1995) The inheritance of nitrogen and phosphorus content in barley analysed by genetic markers. Hereditas 123:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Laperche A, Brancourt-Hulmel M, Heumez E, Gardet O, Le Gouis J (2006a) Estimation of genetic parameters of a DH wheat population grown at different N stress levels characterized by probe genotypes. Theor Appl Genet 112:797–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laperche A, Devienne-Barret F, Maury O, Le Gouis J, Ney B (2006b) A simplified conceptual model of carbon/nitrogen functioning for QTL analysis of winter wheat adaptation to nitrogen deficiency. Theor Appl Genet 113:1131–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laperche A, Brancourt-Hulmel M, Heumez E, Gardet O, Hanocq E, Devienne-Barret F, Le Gouis J (2007) Using genotype × nitrogen interaction variables to evaluate the QTL involved in wheat tolerance to nitrogen constraints. Theor Appl Genet 115:399–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Le Gouis J, Béghin D, Heumez E, Pluchard P (2000) Genetic differences for nitrogen uptake and nitrogen utilisation efficiencies in winter wheat. Eur J Agron 12:163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lea PJ, Azevedo RA (2007) Nitrogen use efficiency. 2. Amino acid metabolism. Ann Appl Biol 151:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lian X, Xing Y, Yan H, Xu C, Li X, Zhang Q (2005) QTLs for low nitrogen tolerance at seedling stage identified using a recombinant inbred line population derived from an elite rice hybrid. Theor Appl Genet 112:85–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lightfoot DA, Mungur R, Ameziane R, Nolte S, Long L, Bernhard K, Colter A, Jones K, Iqbal M, Varsa E, Young B (2007) Improved drought tolerance of transgenic Zea mays plants that express the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA) of E. coli. Euphytica 156:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin A, Lee J, Kichey T, Gerentes D, Zivy M, Tatout C, Dubois F, Balliau T, Valot B, Davanture M, Tercé-Laforgue T, Quilleré I, Coque M, Gallais A, Gonzalez-Moro MB, Bethencourt L, Habash DZ, Lea PJ, Charcosset A, Perez P, Murigneux A, Sakakibara H, Edwards KJ, Hirel B (2006) Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms of maize are specifically involved in the control of grain production. Plant Cell 18:3252–3274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Melo-Oliveira R, Oliveira IC, Coruzzi GM (1996) Arabidopsis mutant analysis and gene regulation define a non-redundant role for glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:4718–4723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Meyer RC, Steinfath M, Lisec J, Becher M, Witucka-Wall H, Törjék O, Fiehn O, Eckart A, Willmitzer L, Selbig J, Altman T (2007) The metabolic signature related to high plant growth rate in Arabidospis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4759–4764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miflin BJ, Habash DZ (2002) The role of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation and possibilities for improvement in the nitrogen utilization of crops. J Exp Bot 53:979–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Miyashita Y, Good AG (2008) NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase is essential for the survival of Arabidospis thaliana during dark-induced carbon starvation. J Exp Bot 59:667–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. O’Neal D, Joy KW (1973) Glutamine synthetase of pea leaves. I. Purification, stabilization, and pH optima. Arch Biochem Biophys 159:113–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Obara M, Kajiura M, Fukuta Y, Yano M, Hayashi M, Yamaya T, Sato T (2001) Mapping of QTLs associated with cytosolic glutamine synthetase and NADH-glutamate synthase in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Exp Bot 52:1209–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Obara M, Sato T, Sasaki S, Kashiba K, Nagano A, Nakamura I, Ebitani T, Yano M, Yamaya T (2004) Identification and characterization of a QTL on chromosome 2 for cytosolic glutamine synthetase content and panicle number in rice. Theor Appl Genet 110:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paux E, Sourdille P, Salse J, Saintenac C, Choulet F, Leroy P, Korol A, Michalak M, Kianian S, Spielmeyer W, Lagudah E, Somers D, Kilian A, Alaux M, Vautrin S, Bergès H, Eversole K, Appels R, Safar J, Simkova H, Dolezel J, Bernard M, Feuillet C (2008) A physical map of the 1-Gigabase bread wheat chromosome 3B. Science 322:101–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Quarrie SA, Steed A, Calestani C, Semikhodskii A, Lebreton C, Chinoy C, Steele N, Pljevljakusic D, Waterman E, Weyen J, Schondelmaier J, Habash DZ, Farmer P, Saker L, Clarkson DT, Abugalieva A, Yessimbekova M, Turuspekov Y, Abugalieva S, Tuberosa R, Sanguineti MC, Hollington PA, Aragués R, Royo A, Dodig D (2005) A high-density genetic map of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the cross Chinese Spring × SQ1 and its use to compare QTLs for grain yield across a range of environments. Theor Appl Genet 110:865–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Quarrie SA, Quarrie SP, Radosevic R, Ransic D, Kaminska A, Barnes JD, Leverington M, Ceoloni C, Dodig D (2006) Dissecting a wheat QTL for yield present in a range of environments: from the QTL to candidate genes. J Exp Bot 57:2627–2637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ravel C, Praud S, Murigneux A, Canaguier A, Sapet F, Samson D, Balfourier F, Dufour P, Chalhoub B, Brunel D, Beckert M, Charmet G (2006) Single-nucleotide polymorphism frequency in a set of selected lines of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Genome 49:1131–1139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Reymond M, Muller B, Tardieu F (2004) Dealing with the genotype × environment interaction via a modelling approach: a comparison of QTL of maize leaf length or width with QTLs of model parameters. J Exp Bot 55:2461–2472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Robert N, Hennequet C, Berard P (2001) Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in wheat kernel: genetic variation in rate and duration of grain filling. J Genet Breed 55:297–305Google Scholar
  57. Rosen H (1957) A modified ninhydrin colorimetric analysis for amino acids. Arch Biochem Biophys 67:10–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. SAS Institute Inc. (1999) SAS/STAT user’s guide, version 8. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  59. Sears ER (1966) Nullisomic–tetrasomic combinations in hexaploid wheat. In: Riley R, Lewis KR (eds) Chromosome manipulations and plant genetics. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, London, pp 29–45Google Scholar
  60. Skopelitis DS, Paranychianakis NV, Paschalidis KA, Pliakonis ED, Delis ID, Yakoumakis DI, Kouvarakis A, Papadakis AK, Stephanou EG, Roubelakis-Angelakis KA (2006) Abiotic stress generates ROS that signal expression of anionic glutamate dehydrogenases to form glutamate for proline synthesis in tobacco and grapevine. Plant Cell 18:2767–2781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Soller M, Genizi A, Brody T (1976) On the power of experimental designs for the detection of linkage between marker loci and quantitative loci in crosses between inbred lines. Theor Appl Genet 47:35–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Somers DJ, Isaac P, Edwards K (2004) A high-density microsatellite consensus map for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 109:1105–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sourdille P, Singh S, Cadalen T, Brown-Guedira GL, Gay G, Qi L, Gill BS, Dufour P, Murigneux A, Bernard M (2004) Microsatellite-based deletion bin system for the establishment of genetic-physical map relationships in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Funct Integr Genom 4:12–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Staden R, Beal KF, Bonfield JK (2000) The Staden package, 1998. Methods Mol Biol 132:115–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Tercé-Laforgue T, Mäck G, Hirel B (2004a) New insights towards the function of glutamate dehydrogenase revealed during source-sink transition of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants grown under different nitrogen regimes. Physiol Plant 120:220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tercé-Laforgue T, Dubois F, Ferrario-Méry S, de Crecenzo MAP, Sangwan R, Hirel B (2004b) Glutamate dehydrogenase of tobacco is mainly induced in the cytosol of phloem companion cells when ammonia is provided either externally or released during photorespiration. Plant Physiol 136:4308–4317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tixier MH, Sourdille P, Charmet G, Gay G, Jaby C, Cadalen T, Bernard S, Nicolas P, Bernard M (1998) Detection of QTLs for crossability in wheat using a doubled-haploid population. Theor Appl Genet 97:1076–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Turano FJ, Dashner R, Upadhyaya A, Caldwell CR (1996) Purification of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase from dark-grown soybean seedlings. Plant Physiol 112:1357–1364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Turano FJ, Thakkar SS, Fang T, Weisemann JM (1997) Characterization and expression of NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase genes in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 113:1329–1341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yang L, Mickelson S, See D, Blake TK, Fischer AM (2004) Genetic analysis of the function of major leaf proteases in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) nitrogen remobilization. J Exp Bot 55:2607–2616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Xavier Fontaine
    • 1
  • Catherine Ravel
    • 4
  • Karine Pageau
    • 1
  • Emmanuel Heumez
    • 2
  • Frédéric Dubois
    • 1
  • Bertrand Hirel
    • 3
  • Jacques Le Gouis
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculté des sciencesUPJV EA3900 BioPI, Nitrogen MetabolismAmiens CedexFrance
  2. 2.Abiotic Stress and Differentiation of Cultivated PlantsINRA/USTL UMR 1281Péronne CedexFrance
  3. 3.Plant Nitrogen NutritionINRA UR 511Versailles CedexFrance
  4. 4.Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of CerealsINRA/UBP UMR 1095Clermont-FerrandFrance

Personalised recommendations