New DNA markers for high molecular weight glutenin subunits in wheat
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End-use quality is one of the priorities of modern wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding. Even though quality is a complex trait, high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins play a major role in determining the bread making quality of wheat. DNA markers developed from the sequences of HMW glutenin genes were reported in several previous studies to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, most of the previously available markers are dominant and amplify large DNA fragments, and thus are not ideal for high throughput genotyping using modern equipment. The objective of this study was to develop and validate co-dominant markers suitable for high throughput MAS for HMW glutenin subunits encoded at the Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 loci. Indels were identified by sequence alignment of allelic HMW glutenin genes, and were targeted to develop locus-specific co-dominant markers. Marker UMN19 was developed by targeting an 18-bp deletion in the coding sequence of subunit Ax2* of Glu-A1. A single DNA fragment was amplified by marker UMN19, and was placed onto chromosome 1AL. Sixteen wheat cultivars with known HMW glutenin subunits were used to validate marker UMN19. The cultivars with subunit Ax2* amplified the 362-bp fragment as expected, and a 344-bp fragment was observed for cultivars with subunit Ax1 or the Ax-null allele. Two co-dominant markers, UMN25 and UMN26, were developed for Glu-D1 by targeting the fragment size polymorphic sites between subunits Dx2 and Dx5, and between Dy10 and Dy12, respectively. The 16 wheat cultivars with known HMW glutenin subunit composition were genotyped with markers UMN25 and UMN26, and the genotypes perfectly matched their subunit types. Using an Applied Biosystems 3130xl Genetic Analyzer, four F2 populations segregating for the Glu-A1 or Glu-D1 locus were successfully genotyped with primers UMN19, UMN25 and UMN26 labeled with fluorescent dyes.
KeywordsWheat Cultivar High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Expect Product Size High Molecular Weight Glutenin Gene High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Composition
We thank Dr. Michael Pumphrey at USDA-ARS, Manhattan, Kansas, for providing DNA of several cultivars used for marker validation, Jennifer Flor and Susan Reynolds for collecting leaf samples for DNA extraction. We also appreciate the technical assistance of Mary Osenga and Richard Sonju at USDA-ARS, Fargo, North Dakota.
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