Molecular mapping of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) resistance genes: discovery of a novel locus and alleles

  • Alexandre Garcia
  • Éberson Sanches Calvo
  • Romeu Afonso de Souza Kiihl
  • Arlindo Harada
  • Dario Minoru Hiromoto
  • Luiz Gonzaga Esteves Vieira
Original Paper


Soybean production in South and North America has recently been threatened by the widespread dissemination of soybean rust (SBR) caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Currently, chemical spray containing fungicides is the only effective method to control the disease. This strategy increases production costs and exposes the environment to higher levels of fungicides. As a first step towards the development of SBR resistant cultivars, we studied the genetic basis of SBR resistance in five F2 populations derived from crossing the Brazilian-adapted susceptible cultivar CD 208 to each of five different plant introductions (PI 200487, PI 200526, PI 230970, PI 459025, PI 471904) carrying SBR-resistant genes (Rpp). Molecular mapping of SBR-resistance genes was performed in three of these PIs (PI 459025, PI 200526, PI 471904), and also in two other PIs (PI 200456 and 224270). The strategy mapped two genes present in PI 230970 and PI 459025, the original sources of Rpp2 and Rpp4, to linkage groups (LG) J and G, respectively. A new SBR resistance locus, rpp5 was mapped in the LG-N. Together, the genetic and molecular analysis suggested multiple alleles or closely linked genes that govern SBR resistance in soybean.



The authors would like to thank Marcelo S. Baço and Adriano A. Marino for technical assistance with plant analysis and the anonymous reviewers who contributed to improvement of the manuscript. This project was financially supported by FAPEMAT (Fundação de Apoio a Pesquisa do Estado de Mato Grosso) and FINEP (Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos – Ação Estruturante Transversal). Alexandre Garcia received a scholarship from Fundação Araucária.


  1. Akinsanmi OA, Ladipo JL, Oyekan PO (2001) First report of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Nigeria. Plant Dis 85:97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barcellos AL, Moraes-Fernandes MIB, Roelfs AP (1997) Ferrugem da folha do trigo (Puccinia recondita): durabilidade da resistência. Summa Phytopatol 23:101–117Google Scholar
  3. Bonde MR, Nester SE, Austin CN, Stone CL, Frederick RD, Hartman GL, Miles MR (2006) Evaluation of virulence of Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae isolates. Plant Dis 90:708–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brogin RL, Arias CAA, Vello NA, Toledo JFF, Pipolo AE, Catelli LL, Marin SRR (2004) Molecular mapping of a gene conferring resistance to soybean rust. Poster presented at the VII World Soybean Res. Conf., Foz do Iguassu, PR, Brazil, 29 February–5 March 2004Google Scholar
  5. Bromfield KR, Hartwig EE (1980) Resistance to soybean rust and mode of inheritance. Crop Sci 20:254–255Google Scholar
  6. Bromfield KR, Melching JS (1982) Sources of specific resistance to soybean rust (Abstract). Phytopatology 72:706Google Scholar
  7. Burdon JJ, Marshall DR (1981) Evaluation of Australian native species of Glycine for resistance to soybean rust. Plant Dis 65:44–45Google Scholar
  8. Burdon JJ (1988) Major gene resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Glycine canescens, a wild relative of soybean. Theor Appl Genet 75:923–928Google Scholar
  9. Calvo ES, Kiihl RA de S, Garcia A, Harada A, Hiromoto DM (2008) Two major recessive soybean genes conferring soybean rust resistance. Crop Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  10. Cregan PB, Jarvik TAL, Bush AL, Shoemaker RC, Lark KG, Kahler AL et al (1999) An integrated genetic linkage map of the soybean. Crop Sci 39:1464–1490Google Scholar
  11. Fehr WR, Caviness CE (1977) Stages of soybean development. Special Report 80. Iowa State University, Ames, 12 pGoogle Scholar
  12. Graham MA, Marek LF, Shoemaker RC (2002) Organization, expression and evolution of a disease resistance gene cluster in soybean. Genetics 162:1961–1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. GRIN (2008) Germplasm Resources Information Network. Natl. Germplasm Resour. Lab., Beltsville, MD. Accessed on 28 Mar 2008
  14. Hartman GL, Miles MR, Frederick RD (2005) Breeding for resistance to soybean rust (Symposium). Plant Dis 89:664–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hartwig EE (1986) Identification of a fourth major gene conferring to rust in soybeans. Crop Sci 26:1135–1136Google Scholar
  16. Hyten D (2007) Mapping soybean rust single gene resistance. In: Proceedings of the 2007 National Soybean Rust Symposium, Louisville, Kentucky, 2007. 18 diapositivos:colorGoogle Scholar
  17. Hyten DL, Hartman GL, Nelson RL, Frederick RD, Concibido VC, Narvel JM, Cregan PB (2007) Map location of the Rpp1 locus that confers resistance to soybean rust in soybean. Crop Sci 47:837–840Google Scholar
  18. Kato M, Yorinori JT (2006) Variabilidade Patogênica da Phakopsora pachyrhizi no Brasil. In: Reunião de pesquisa de soja da região central do Brasil, 28, 2006, Londrina. [Anais] Londrina: Embrapa Soja - Fundação Meridional - Fundação Triângulo, 2006, pp 147–149Google Scholar
  19. Killgore E, Heu R (1994) First report of soybean rust in Hawaii. Plant Dis 78:1216Google Scholar
  20. Kochman JK (1977) Soybean rust in Australia. In: Ford RE, Sinclair JB (eds) Rust of soybean—the problem and research needs. International Agricultural Publications, Manila, pp 44–48Google Scholar
  21. Kolmer JA (1996) Genetics of resistance to wheat leaf rust. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34:435–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lincoln SE, Lander SL (1993) Mapmaker/exp 3.0 and Mapmaker/QTL 1.1. Whitehead Institute of Medical Research, Technical Report, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu J, Liu D, Tao W, Li W, Wang S, Chen P, Cheng S, Gao D (2000) Molecular marker-facilitated pyramiding of different genes for powdery mildew resistance in wheat. Plant Breed 119:21–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marchetti MA, Melching JS, Bromfield KR (1976) The effects of temperature and dew period on germination and infection by uredospores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Phytopathology 66:461–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marchetti MA, Uecker FA, Bromfield KR (1975) Uredial development of Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybeans. Phytopathology 65:822–823Google Scholar
  26. McDowell JM, Simon SA (2006) Recent insights into R gene evolution. Mol Plant Pathol 7:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McLean RJ, Byth DE (1980) Inheritance of resistance to rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in soybeans. Aust J Agric Res 31:951–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Melching JS, Dowler WM, Koogle DL, Royer MH (1989) Effects of duration, frequency, and temperature of leaf wetness periods on soybean rust. Plant Dis 73:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Michelmore RW, Paran I, Kesseli RV (1991) Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci 88:9828–9832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miles MR, Frederick RD, Hartman G (2003) Soybean rust: is the U.S. soybean crop at risk? In: APSnet Feature. American Phytopathological Society. Accessed on 11 Jul 2007
  31. Monteros MJ, Missaoui AM, Phillips DV, Walker DR, Boerma HR (2007) Mapping and confirmation of the ‘Hyuuga’ red–brown lesion resistance gene for Asian soybean rust. Crop Sci 47:829–836Google Scholar
  32. Paiva WM, Yorinori JT (2002) Situacion de la roja de la soja en el Paraguay. Bol. de Diulgacion N°. 44. Ministerio de Agricultura y Granaderia, Centro Regional de Investigacion Agricola, Capitan Miranda, ParaguayGoogle Scholar
  33. Polzin KM, Lohnes DG, Nickell CD, Shoemaker RC (1994) Integration of Rps2, Rmd and Rj2 into linkage group J of the soybean molecular map. J Heredity 85:300–303Google Scholar
  34. Rossi RL (2003) First report of Phakospora pachryhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust in the Provence of Misiones, Argentina. Plant Dis 87:102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schneider RW, Hollier CA, Hitam HK (2005) First report of soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in the continental United States. Plant Dis 89:774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sconyers LE, Kemerait RC, Brock J, Phillips DV, Jost PH, Sikora EJ, Gutierrez-Estrada A, Mueller JD, Marois JJ, Wright DL, Harmon CL (2006) Asian soybean rust development in 2005: a perspective from the southeastern United States. In: APSnet Feature. American Phytopathological Society. Accessed on 11 Jul 2007
  37. Shagai-MarooF MA, Soliman KM, Jorgensen RA, Allard RW (1984) Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphisms in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal locations, and populations dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 81:8014–8018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sharma ND, Mehta SK (1996) Soybean rust in Madhya Pradesh. Acta Bot Indica 24:115–116Google Scholar
  39. Song QJ, Marek LF, Shoemaker RC, Lark KG, Concibido VC, Delannay X, Specht JE, Cregan PB (2004) A new integrated genetic linkage map of the soybean. Theor Appl Genet 109:122–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. SoyBase and The Soybean Breeder’s Toolbox (2007) USDA, Washington. Iowa State University, Ames. Accessed on 11 Jul 2007
  41. Tanskley SD (1983) Molecular markers in plant breeding. Plant Mol Biol 1:3–8Google Scholar
  42. Tanskley SD, McCouch SR (1997) See banks and molecular maps: unlocking genetic potential from the wild. Science 277:1063–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yamaoka Y, Fujiwara Y, Kakishima M, Katsuya K, Yamada K, Hagiwara H (2002) Pathogenic races of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean and wild host plants collected in Japan. J Gen Plant Pathol 68:52–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yorinori JT, Paiva WM, Frederick RD, Costamilan LM, Bertagnolli PF, Hartman GL et al (2005) Epidemics of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Brazil and Paraguay from 2001 to 2003. Plant Dis 89:675–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandre Garcia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Éberson Sanches Calvo
    • 2
  • Romeu Afonso de Souza Kiihl
    • 2
  • Arlindo Harada
    • 2
  • Dario Minoru Hiromoto
    • 3
  • Luiz Gonzaga Esteves Vieira
    • 4
  1. 1.State University of Londrina (UEL)LondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Tropical Melhoramento e Genética Ltda (TMG)CambéBrazil
  3. 3.Fundação de Apoio a Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso (Fundação MT)RondonópolisBrazil
  4. 4.Instituto Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR)LondrinaBrazil

Personalised recommendations