Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp 223–233 | Cite as

Using molecular markers to identify two major loci controlling carotenoid contents in maize grain

  • Subhash Chander
  • Y. Q. Guo
  • X. H. Yang
  • J. Zhang
  • X. Q. Lu
  • J. B. Yan
  • T. M. Song
  • T. R. Rocheford
  • J. S. Li
Original Paper

Abstract

Maize is an important source of pro-vitamin A; β-carotene, α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin, and the non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids including lutein and zeaxanthin. In the present study, a recombinant inbred (RI) population with 233 RI lines derived from a cross between By804 and B73 was employed to detect QTL for these nutritionally important components in maize grain. High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to measure amounts of individual carotenoids over 2 years. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 201 molecular markers. In all, 31 putative QTL including 23 for individual and 8 for total carotenoids were detected on chromosome(s) 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10. The notable aspect of this study was that much of the phenotypic variation in contents of carotenoids could be explained by two loci (y1 and y9), and the QTL for carotenoids elucidated the interrelationships among these compounds at the molecular level. A gene targeted marker (Y1ssr) in the candidate gene phytoene synthase 1 (psy1) tightly linked to a major QTL explaining 6.6–27.2% phenotypic variation for levels of carotenoids was identified, which may prove useful to expedite breeding for higher level of carotenoids in maize grain. This functionally characterized gene (psy1) could also be exploited for further development of functional marker for carotenoids in maize. The QTL cluster located at y9 locus may also be used for pyramiding favorable alleles controlling contents of carotenoids from diverse maize germplasm.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Prof. Delia Rodriguez-Amaya (Brazil) for guidance during carotenoids standard preparation, and Drs. Vinay Mahajan and S. S. Banga (India) for suggestions and discussion on revised manuscript. We also greatly appreciate both anonymous reviewers for their invaluable comments. We would also like to acknowledge financial support from the HarvestPlus program and the Indian and Chinese governments for providing scholarship to the first author.

References

  1. Abbo S, Molina C, Jungmann R, Grusak MA, Berkovitch Z, Reifen R, Kahl G, Winter P, Reifen R (2005) Quantitative trait loci governing carotenoid concentration and weight in seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theor Appl Genet 113:1357–1369Google Scholar
  2. Andersen JR, Lübberstedt T (2003) Functional markers in plants. Trends Plant Sci 8:554–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blessin CW, Brecher JD, Dimler RJ, Grogan CO, Campbell CM (1963a) Carotenoid of corn and sorghum III. Variation in xanthophylls and carotenes in hybrid, inbred, and exotic corn lines. Cereal Chem 40:436–442Google Scholar
  4. Blessin CW, Brecher JD, Dimler RJ, Grogan CO, Campbell CM (1963b) Carotenoids of corn and sorghum V. Distribution of xanthophylls and carotenes in hand-dissected and dry milled fraction of yellow dent corn. Cereal Chem 40:582–586Google Scholar
  5. Brunson AM, Quackenbush FW (1962) Breeding corn with high pro-vitamin A in the grain. Crop Sci 2:344–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buckner B, Kelson TL, Robertson DS (1990) Cloning of the y1 locus of maize, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids. Plant Cell 2:867–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buckner B, San Miguel P, Bennetzen JL (1996) The y1 gene of maize codes for phytoene synthase. Genetics 143:479–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Churchill GA, Doerge RW (1994) Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics 138:963–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Egesel CO, Wong JC, Lambert RJ, Rocheford TR (2003a) Combining ability of maize inbreds for carotenoids and tocopherols. Crop Sci 43:818–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Egesel CO, Wong JC, Lambert RJ, Rocheford TR (2003b) Gene dosage effects on carotenoid concentration in maize grain. Maydica 48:183–190Google Scholar
  11. Fraser PD, Bramley PM (2004) The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids. Progr Lipid Res 43:228–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallagher CE, Matthews PD, Li FQ, Wurtzel ET (2003) Gene duplication in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway preceded evolution of the grasses. Plant Physiol 135(7):1776–1783Google Scholar
  13. Hable WE, Oishi KK, Schumaker KS (1998) Viviparous-5 encodes phytoene desaturase, an enzyme essential for abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation and seed development in maize. Mol Gen Genet 257(2):167–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hirschberg J (2001) Carotenoid biosynthesis in flowering plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:210–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huh JH, Kang BC, Nahm SH, Kim S, Ha KS, Lee MH, Kim BD (2001) A candidate gene approach identified phytoene synthase as the locus for mature fruit colour in red pepper (Capsicum spp.). Theor Appl Genet 102:524–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Janic-Buckner D, O´Neal J, Joyce E, Buckner B (2001) Genetic and biochemical analysis of the y9 gene of maize, a carotenoid biosynthetic gene. Maydica 46:41–46Google Scholar
  17. Knapp SJ, Stroup WW, Ross WM (1985) Exact confidence intervals for heritability on a progeny mean basis. Crop Sci 25:192–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kurilich AC, Juvik JA (1999) Simultaneous quantification of carotenoids and tocopherols in corn kernel extracts by HPLC. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 22:2925–2934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li FQ, Murillo C, Wurtzel ET (2007) Maize Y9 encodes a product essential for 15-cis- ξ-carotene isomerization. Plant Physiol 144:1181–1189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li ZH, Matthews PD, Burr B, Wurtzel ET (1996) Cloning and characterization of a maize cDNA encoding phytoene desaturase, an enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Plant Mol Biol 30:269–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lincoln S, Daly M, Lander E (1992) Mapping genetic mapping with MAPMAKER/EXP3.0. Whitehead Institute technical report, Cambridge, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu YS, Gur A, Ronen G, Causse M, Damidaux R, Buret M, Hirschberg J, Zamir D (2003) There is more to tomato fruit colour than candidate carotenoid genes. Plant Biotech J 1:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Luo R, Wurtzel ET (1999) A maize cDNA encoding zeta carotene desaturase. Plant Physiol 120:1206Google Scholar
  24. Mangelsdorf PC, Fraps GS (1931) A direct quantitative relationship between vitamin A in corn and the number of genes for yellow pigmentation. Science 73:241–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matthews PD, Luo R, Wurtzel ET (2003) Maize phytoene desaturase and zeta carotene desaturase catalyze a poly-Z desaturation pathway: implications for genetic engineering of carotenoid content among cereal crops. J Exp Botany 54:2215–2230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murry MG, Thompson WF (1980) Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 8:4321–4325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Paine JA, Shipton CA, Chaggar S, Howells MR, Kennedy JM, Vernon G, Wright SY, Hinchliffe E, Adams JL, Silverstone AL, Drake R (2005) Improving the nutritional value of golden rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nat Biotechnol 23:482–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Palaisa KA, Morgante M, Williams M, Rafalski A (2003) Contrasting effects of selection on sequence diversity and linkage disequilibrium at tow phytoene synthase loci. Plant cell 15:1795–1806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pflieger S, Lefebvre V, Causse M (2001) The candidate gene approach in plant genetics: a review. Mol Breed 7:275–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quackenbush FW (1963) Corn carotenoids: effects of temperature and moisture on losses during storage. Cereal Chem 40(3):266–269Google Scholar
  31. Ravanello PM, Ke D, Alvarez J, Huang B, Shewmaker CK (2003) Coordinate expression of multiple bacterial carotenoid genes in canola leading to altered carotenoid production. Metab Eng 5:255–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rodriguez-Amaya DB, Kimura M (2004) HarvestPlus handbook for carotenoid analysis. HarvestPlus technical monograph 2, pp 2–51Google Scholar
  33. Santos CAF, Simon PW (2006) Heritabilities and minimum gene number estimates of carrot carotenoids. Euphytica 151:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh M, Lewis PE, Hardeman K, Bai L, Rose JKC, Azourek M, Chomt P, Brutnell TP (2003) Activator mutagenesis of the pink scutellum1/viviparous7 locus of maize. Plant Cell 15(4):874–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Steenbock H, Coward KH (1927) Fat-soluble vitamins. XXVII. The quantitative determination of vitamin A. J Biol Chem 72:765–779Google Scholar
  36. Thorup TA, Tanyolac B, Livingstone KD, Popovsky S, Paran I, Jahn M (2000) Candidate gene analysis of organ pigmentation loci in the Solanaceae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:11192–11197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. UNICEF (2005) Vitamin A webpage. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/23964_vitamina.html
  38. Weber EJ (1987) Carotenoids and tocols of corn grain determined by HPLC. J Am Oil Chem Soc 64:1129–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wong JC, Lambert RJ, Wurtzel ET, Rocheford TR (2004) QTL and candidate genes phytoene synthase and z-carotene desaturase associated with the accumulation of carotenoids in maize. Theor Appl Genet 108:349–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wurtzel ET (2004) Genomics, genetics, and biochemistry of maize carotenoid biosynthesis. Recent Adv Phytochem 38:85–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xu SB, Tao YF, Yang ZQ, Chu JY (2002) A simple and rapid method used for silver staining and gel preservation. Heredity 24:335–336Google Scholar
  42. Zeng ZB (1994) Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci. Genetics 136:1457–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subhash Chander
    • 1
  • Y. Q. Guo
    • 1
  • X. H. Yang
    • 1
  • J. Zhang
    • 1
  • X. Q. Lu
    • 1
  • J. B. Yan
    • 1
  • T. M. Song
    • 1
  • T. R. Rocheford
    • 2
  • J. S. Li
    • 1
  1. 1.National Maize Improvement Center of ChinaChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Crop SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations