Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 113, Issue 6, pp 1103–1112 | Cite as

Identification of genetic loci associated with ear-emergence in bread wheat

  • H. KuchelEmail author
  • G. Hollamby
  • P. Langridge
  • K. Williams
  • S. P. Jefferies
Original Paper


A doubled haploid population constructed from a cross between the South Australian wheat cultivars ‘Trident’ and ‘Molineux’ was grown under winter field conditions, under field conditions over summer and under artificial light both with and without vernalisation. The duration from planting to ear-emergence was recorded and QTL associated with heading date were detected using a previously constructed genetic linkage map. Associations were shown with chromosomal regions syntenous to previously identified photoperiod (Ppd-B1) and vernalisation (Vrn-A1) sensitive loci. Additional QTL associated with time to heading were also identified on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 6D, 7A and 7B. Comparisons between the genetic associations observed under the different growing conditions allowed the majority of these loci to be classified as having either photoperiod-sensitive, vernalisation-sensitive or earliness per se actions. The identification of a photoperiod-sensitive QTL on chromosome 1A provides evidence for a wheat gene possibly homoeologous to Ppd-H2 previously identified on chromosome 1H of barley. The occurrence of a putative major gene for photoperiod sensitivity observed on chromosome 7A is presented. The combined additive effects at these loci accounted for more than half the phenotypic variance in the duration from planting to ear-emergence in this population. The possible role of these loci on the adaptation of wheat in Australia is discussed.


Ear-emergence Earliness per se Photoperiod Quantitative trait locus Triticum aestivum Vernalisation 



Quantitative trait locus



The authors would like to thank the Grains Research and Development Corporation, the Molecular Plant Breeding Cooperative Research Centre and Australian Grain Technologies for their financial assistance. They would also like to show their gratitude to Mr. J. Reinheimer, Dr. D. Mather and Dr. G. McDonald for their helpful comments and the staff at Australian Grain Technologies and the South Australian Research and Development Institute for their technical assistance in collecting genetic and phenotypic data.


  1. Flood RG, Halloran GM (1984a) Basic development rate in spring wheat. Agron J 76:260–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Flood RG, Halloran GM (1984b) Temperature as a component of the expression of developmental responses in wheat. Euphytica 22:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gilmour AF, Cullis BR, Verbyla A (1997) Accounting for natural and extraneous variation in the analysis of field experiments. J Agric Biol Environ Stat 2:269–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Haley CS, Knott SA (1992) A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers. Heredity 69:315–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Halloran GM, Boydell CW (1967a) Wheat chromosomes with genes for photoperiodic response. Can J Genet Cytol 9:394–398Google Scholar
  6. Halloran GM, Boydell CW (1967b) Wheat chromosomes with genes for vernalization response. Can J Genet Cytol 9:632–639Google Scholar
  7. Hanocq E, Niarquin M, Heumez E, Rousset M, Le Gouis J (2004) Detection and mapping of QTL for earliness components in a bread wheat recombinant inbred lines population. Theor Appl Genet 110:106–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Islam-Faridi MN, Worland AJ, Law CN (1996) Inhibition of ear-emergence time and sensitivity to day-length determined by the group 6 chromosomes of wheat. Heredity 77:572–580Google Scholar
  9. Laurie DA (1997) Comparative genetics of flowering time. Plant Mol Biol 35:167–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Laurie DA, Pratchett N, Bezant JH, Snape JW (1995) RFLP mapping of five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time in a winter × spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cross. Genome 38:575–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Law CN, Worland AJ (1997) Genetic analysis of some flowering time and adaptive traits in wheat. New Phytol 137:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Law CN, Worland AJ, Giorgi B (1976) The genetic control of ear-emergence time by chromosomes 5A and 5D of wheat. Heredity 36:49–58Google Scholar
  13. Law CN, Suarez E, Miller JR, Worland AJ (1998) The influence of the group 1 chromosomes of wheat on ear-emergence times and their involvement with vernalization and day length. Heredity 80:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Manly KF, Olson JM (1999) Overview of QTL mapping software and introduction to MAP MANAGER QT. Mamm Genome 10:327–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mohler V, Lukman R, Ortiz-Islas S, William M, Worland AJ, van Beem J, Wenzel G (2004) Genetic and physical mapping of photoperiod insensitive gene Ppd-B1 in common wheat. Euphytica 138:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nyquist WE (1991) Estimation of heritability and prediction of selection response in plant populations. Crit Rev Plant Sci 10:235–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Payne RW, Baird DB, Cherry M, Gilmour AR, Harding SA, Kane AK, Lane PW, Murray DA, Soutar DM, Thompson R, Todd AD, Tunnicliffe Wilson G, Webster R, Welham SJ (2002) GenStat release 6.1 reference manual. VSN International, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  18. Puckridge R (1983) Fisher phenological development scale. Interstate wheat variety trials, Annual report 1982 programme, vol 1, pp 109–111Google Scholar
  19. Ranjbar GA (1997) Production and utilisation of doubled haploid lines in wheat breeding programmes. PhD thesis, The University of AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  20. Scarth R, Law CN (1983) The location of photoperiod gene Ppd2 and an additional genetic factor for ear emergence time on chromosome 2B of wheat. Heredity 51:607–619Google Scholar
  21. Shindo C, Tsujimoto H, Sasakuma T (2003) Segregation analysis of heading traits in hexaploid wheat utilizing recombinant inbred lines. Heredity 90:56–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Snape JW, Butterworth K, Whitechurch E, Worland AJ (2001) Waiting for fine times: genetics of flowering time in wheat. Euphytica 119:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Song QJ, Shi JR, Singh S, Fickus EW, Costa JM, Lewis J, Gill BS, Ward R, Cregan PB (2005) Development and mapping of microsatellite (SSR) markers in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 110:550–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sourdille P, Snape JW, Cadalen T, Charmet G, Nakata N, Bernard S, Bernard M (2000) Detection of QTLs for heading time and photoperiod response in wheat using a doubled-haploid population. Genome 43:487–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Williams KJ, Willsmore KJ, Olson S, Matic M, Kuchel H (2006) Mapping of a novel QTL for resistance to cereal cyst nematode in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 112:1480–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Worland AJ, Borner A, Korzun V, Li WM, Petrovic S, Sayers EJ (1998) The influence of photoperiod genes on the adaptability of European winter wheats. Euphytica 100:385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yan L, Helguera M, Kato K, Fukuyama S, Sherman J, Dubcovsky J (2004) Allelic variation at the VRN-1 promoter region in polyploid wheat. Theor Appl Genet 109:1677–1686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Kuchel
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • G. Hollamby
    • 1
  • P. Langridge
    • 2
    • 4
  • K. Williams
    • 3
    • 5
  • S. P. Jefferies
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Australian Grain Technologies Pty LtdUniversity of AdelaideRoseworthyAustralia
  2. 2.School of Agriculture and WineUniversity of AdelaideGlen OsmondAustralia
  3. 3.Molecular Plant Breeding Cooperative Research CentreUniversity of AdelaideGlen OsmondAustralia
  4. 4.Australian Centre for Plant Functional GenomicsGlen OsmondAustralia
  5. 5.South Australian Research and Development InstituteGlen OsmondAustralia

Personalised recommendations