Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 112, Issue 8, pp 1593–1600 | Cite as

Construction of a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) BAC library and its use in identifying genes encoding seed storage proteins

  • M. R. Stevens
  • C. E. Coleman
  • S. E. Parkinson
  • P. J. Maughan
  • H.-B. Zhang
  • M. R. Balzotti
  • D. L. Kooyman
  • K. Arumuganathan
  • A. Bonifacio
  • D. J. Fairbanks
  • E. N. Jellen
  • J. J. Stevens
Original Paper


Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to the harsh environments of the Andean Altiplano region. Its seeds have a well-balanced amino acid composition and exceptionally high protein content with respect to human nutrition. Quinoa grain is a staple in the diet of some of the most impoverished people in the world. The plant is an allotetraploid displaying disomic inheritance (2n=4x=36) with a di-haploid genome of 967 Mbp (megabase pair), or 2C=2.01 pg. We constructed two quinoa BAC libraries using BamHI (26,880 clones) and EcoRI (48,000 clones) restriction endonucleases. Cloned inserts in the BamHI library average 113 kb (kilobase) with approximately 2% of the clones lacking inserts, whereas cloned inserts in the EcoRI library average 130 kb and approximately 1% lack inserts. Three plastid genes used as probes of high-density arrayed blots of 73,728 BACs identified approximately 2.8% of the clones as containing plastid DNA inserts. We estimate that the combined quinoa libraries represent at least 9.0 di-haploid nuclear genome equivalents. An average of 12.2 positive clones per probe were identified with 13 quinoa single-copy ESTs as probes of the high-density arrayed blots, suggesting that the estimate of 9.0× coverage of the genome is conservative. Utility of the BAC libraries for gene identification was demonstrated by probing the library with a partial sequence of the 11S globulin seed storage protein gene and identifying multiple positive clones. The presence of the 11S globulin gene in four of the clones was verified by direct comparison with quinoa genomic DNA on a Southern blot. Besides serving as a useful tool for gene identification, the quinoa BAC libraries will be an important resource for physical mapping of the quinoa genome.


Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library Average Insert Size Seed Storage Protein Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We acknowledge the contribution to this work by Jared Tyler. This research was made possible by financial support from the McKnight Foundation-CCRP, Holmes Family Foundation, and the Ezra Taft Benson Agriculture and Food Institute and germplasm contributions by PROINPA (La Paz, Bolivia) and the National University of the Altiplano/FAO (Puno, Peru). The work reported here was carried out in compliance with laws governing genetic experimentation in the United States.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Stevens
    • 1
  • C. E. Coleman
    • 1
  • S. E. Parkinson
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. J. Maughan
    • 1
  • H.-B. Zhang
    • 3
  • M. R. Balzotti
    • 1
  • D. L. Kooyman
    • 4
  • K. Arumuganathan
    • 5
  • A. Bonifacio
    • 6
  • D. J. Fairbanks
    • 1
  • E. N. Jellen
    • 1
  • J. J. Stevens
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant and Animal SciencesBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant and Microbial BiologyUniversity of California BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Soil and Crop Sciences and Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology, 2123 TAMUTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  4. 4.Department of Physiology and Developmental BiologyBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  5. 5.Flow and Image Cytometry Core LaboratoriesBenaroya Research Institute at Virginia MasonSeattleUSA
  6. 6.The Foundation for the Promotion and Investigation of Andean Products (PROINPA)La PazBolivia

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