Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Hessian fly resistance gene H13 is mapped to a distal cluster of resistance genes in chromosome 6DS of wheat

  • 286 Accesses

  • 39 Citations


H13 is inherited as a major dominant resistance gene in wheat. It was previously mapped to chromosome 6DL and expresses a high level of antibiosis against Hessian fly (Hf) [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] larvae. The objective of this study was to identify tightly linked molecular markers for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding and as a starting point toward the map-based cloning of H13. Fifty-two chromosome 6D-specific microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers were tested for linkage to H13 using near-isogenic lines Molly (PI 562619) and Newton-207, and a segregating population consisting of 192 F2:3 families derived from the cross PI 372129 (Dn4) × Molly (H13). Marker Xcfd132 co-segregated with H13, and several other markers were tightly linked to H13 in the distal region of wheat chromosome 6DS. Deletion analysis assigned H13 to a small region closely proximal to the breakpoint of del6DS-6 (FL 0.99). Further evaluation and comparison of the H13-linked markers revealed that the same chromosome region may also contain H23 in KS89WGRC03, an unnamed H gene (H WGRC4 ) in KS89WGRC04, the wheat curl mite resistance gene Cmc4, and a defense response gene Ppo for polyphenol oxidase. Thus, these genes comprise a cluster of arthropod resistance genes. Marker analysis also revealed that a very small intercalary chromosomal segment carrying H13 was transferred from the H13 donor parent to the wheat line Molly.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Cox TS, Hatchett JH (1994) Hessian fly resistance gene H26 transferred from Triticum tauschii to common wheat. Crop Sci 34:958–960

  2. Devos KM, Bryan GJ, Collins AJ, Stephenson P, Gale MD (1995) Application of two microsatellite sequences in wheat storage proteins as molecular markers. Theor Appl Genet 90:247–252

  3. Dweikat I, Ohm H, MacKenzie S, Patterson F, Cambron S, Ratcliffe R (1994) Association of a DNA marker with Hessian fly resistance gene H9 in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 89:964–968

  4. Dweikat I, Ohm H, Patterson F, Cambron S (1997) Identification of RAPD markers for 11 Hessian fly resistance genes in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 94:419–423

  5. Dweikat I, Zhang W, Ohm H (2002) Development of STS markers linked to Hessian fly resistance gene H6. Theor Appl Genet 105:766–770

  6. El Bouhssini M, Hatchett JH, Wilde GE (1999) Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larval survival as affected by wheat resistance alleles, temperature and larval density. J Agric Urban Entomol 16:245–254

  7. Endo TR, Gill BS (1996) The deletion stocks of common wheat. J Hered 87:295–307

  8. Feuillet C, Travella S, Stein N, Albar L, Nublat A, Keller B (2003) Map-based isolation of the leaf rust disease resistance gene Lr10 from the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:15253–15258

  9. Gagne RJ, Hatchett JH (1989) Instars of the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 82:73–79

  10. Gill BS, Hatchett JH, Raupp WJ (1987) Chromosomal mapping of Hessian fly-resistance gene H13 in the D genome of wheat. J Hered 78:97–100

  11. Gill BS, Raupp WJ (1987) Direct genetic transfer from Aegilops squarrosa L. to hexaploid wheat. Crop Sci 27:445–450

  12. Gill BS, Wilson DL, Raupp WJ, Hatchett JH, Harvey TL, Cox TS, Sears RG (1991a) Registration of KS89WGRC4 hard red winter wheat germplasm with resistance to Hessian fly, greenbug, and soil-borne mosaic virus. Crop Sci 31:246

  13. Gill BS, Wilson DL, Raupp WJ, Hatchett JH, Harvey TL, Cox TS, Amri S, Sears RG (1991b) Registration of KS89WGRC3 and KS89WGRC6 Hessian fly-resistant hard red winter wheat germplasm. Crop Sci 31:245

  14. Gill KS, Lubbers EL, Gill BS, Raupp WJ, Cox TS (1991c) A genetic linkage map of Triticum tauschii (DD) and its relation to the D genome of bread wheat (AABBDD). Genome 34:362–374

  15. Gupta PK, Balyan HS, Edwards KJ, Isaac P, Korzun V, Röder M, Gautier MF, Joudrier P, Schlatter AR, Dubcovsky J, De la Pena RC, Khairallah M, Penner G, Sharp P, Keller B, Wang RCC, Hardouin JP, Jack P, Leroy P (2002) Genetic mapping of 66 new microsatellite (SSR) loci in bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 105:413–422

  16. Gupta PK, Varshney RK (2000) The development and use of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and plant breeding with emphasis on bread wheat. Euphytica 113:163–185

  17. Guyomarc’h H, Sourdille P, Charmet G, Edwards KJ, Bernard M (2002) Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers from Aegilops tauschii and transferability to the D-genome of bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 104:1164–1172

  18. Hatchett JH, Gill BS (1981) D-genome sources of resistance in Triticum tauschii to Hessian fly. J Hered 72:126–127

  19. Hatchett JH, Martin TJ, Livers RW (1981) Expression and inheritance of resistance to Hessian fly in hexaploid wheats derived from Triticum tauschii (Coss.) Schmal. Crop Sci 21:731–734

  20. Huang L, Brooks SA, Li W, Fellers JP, Trick HN, Gill BS (2003) Map-based cloning of leaf rust resistance gene Lr21 from the large and polyploid genome of bread wheat. Genetics 164:655–664

  21. Kosambi DD (1944) The estimation of map distances from recombination values. Ann Eugen 12:172–175

  22. Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincoln SE, Newburg L (1987) MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1:174–181

  23. Li WL, Faris JD, Chittoor JM, Leach JE, Hulbert SH, Liu DJ, Chen PD, Gill BS (1999) Genomic mapping of defense response genes in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 98:226–233

  24. Liu XM, Smith CM, Gill BS (2002) Identification of microsatellite markers linked to Russian wheat aphid resistance genes Dn4 and Dn6. Theor Appl Genet 104:1042–1048

  25. Ma ZQ, Gill BS, Sorrells ME, Tanksley SD (1993) RFLP markers linked to Hessian fly-resistance genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from Triticum tauschii (Coss.) Schmal. Theor Appl Genet 85:750–754

  26. Maas FB III, Patterson FL, Foster JE, Hatchett JH (1987) Expression and inheritance of resistance of ‘Marquillo’ wheat to Hessian fly biotype D. Crop Sci 27:49–52

  27. Malik R, Brown-Guedira GL, Smith CM, Harvey TL, Gill BS (2003) Genetic mapping of wheat curl mite resistance genes Cmc3 and Cmc4 in common wheat. Crop Sci 43:644–650

  28. McIntosh RA, Yamazaki Y, Devos KM, Dubcovsky J, Rogers J, Appels R (2003) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. MacGene 2003, (

  29. Melchinger AE (1990) Use of molecular markers in breeding for oligogenic disease resistance. Plant Breed 104:1–19

  30. Michelmore RW, Paran I, Kesseli RV (1991) Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:9828–9832

  31. Patterson FL, Mass III FB, Foster JE, Ratcliffe RH, Cambron S, Safranski G, Taylor PL, Ohm HW (1994) Registration of eight Hessian fly resistant common winter wheat germplasm lines (Carol, Erin, Flynn, Iris, Joy, Karen, Lola, and Molly). Crop Sci. 34:315–316

  32. Pestsova E, Ganal MW, Röder MS (2000) Isolation and mapping of microsatellite markers specific for the D genome of bread wheat. Genome 43:689–697

  33. Rafalski JA, Tingey SV (1993) Genetic diagnostics in plant breeding: RAPDs, microsatellites and machines. Trends Genet 9:275–280

  34. Ratcliffe RH, Hatchett JH (1997) Biology and genetics of the Hessian fly and resistance in wheat. In: Bondari K (ed) New developments in entomology. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, India, pp 47–56

  35. Ratcliffe RH, Cambron SE, Flanders KL, Bosque-Perez NA, Clement SL, Ohm HW (2000) Biotype composition of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) populations from the southeastern, mid-western, and northwestern United States and virulence to resistance genes in wheat. J Econ Entomol 94:1319–1328

  36. Raupp WJ, Amri A, Hatchett JH, Gill BS, Wilson DL, Cox TS (1993) Chromosomal location of Hessian fly-resistance genes H22, H23, and H24 derived from Triticum tauschii in the D genome of wheat. J Hered 84:142–145

  37. Richter TE, Ronald PC (2000) The evolution of disease resistance genes. Plant Mol Biol 42:195–204

  38. Röder MS, Korzun V, Wendehake K, Plaschke J, Tixier M, Leroy P, Ganal MW (1998) A microsatellite map of wheat. Genetics 149:2007–2023

  39. Sears ER (1954) The aneuploids of common wheat. Univ Mo Agric Exp Stn Bull 572:1–58

  40. Sears ER (1966) Nullisomic–tetrasomic combinations in hexaploid wheat. In: Rilly R, Lewis KR (eds) Chromosome manipulations and plant genetics. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, pp 29–45

  41. Somers DJ, Isaac P, Edwards K (2004) A high-density microsatellite consensus map for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 109:1105–1114

  42. Sourdille P, Singh S, Cadalen T, Brown-Guedira GL, Gay G, Qi LL, Gill BS, Dufour P, Murigneux A, Bernard M (2004) Microsatellite-based deletion bin system for the establishment of genetic-physical map relationships in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Funct Integr Genomics 4:12–25

  43. Stephenson P, Bryan G, Kirby J, Collins A, Devos K, Busso C, Gale M (1998) Fifty new microsatellite loci for the wheat genetic map. Theor Appl Genet 97:946–949

  44. Tanaka M (1961) New amphidiploids, synthesized 6X-wheats, derived from Emmer wheat × Aegilops squarrosa. Wheat Info Serv 12:11

  45. Williams CE, Collier CC, Sardesai N, Ohm HW, Cambron SE (2003) Phenotypic assessment and mapped markers for H31, a new wheat gene conferring resistance to Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Theor Appl Genet 107:1516–1523

  46. Yahiaoui N, Srichumpa P, Dubert R, Keller B (2004) Genome analysis at different ploidy levels allows cloning of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3b from hexaploid wheat. Plant J 37:528–538

  47. Yencho GC, Cohen MB, Byrne PF (2000) Applications of tagging and mapping insect resistance loci in plants. Annu Rev Entomol 45:393–422

Download references


The authors thank Xiang Liu, E. Parker, D.L. Wilson, and K.D. Howell for technical assistance; Sue Cambron for the Hessian fly biotype L culture; and Dr. H. Ohm for the wheat seeds. We appreciate the valuable suggestions and comments on the manuscript from Drs. C.M. Smith and G.H. Bai. The experiments comply with the current laws of the Unites States, where the experiments were performed. Contribution no. 05-87-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan., USA.

Author information

Correspondence to M.-S. Chen.

Additional information

Mention of commercial or proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA.

Communicated by B. Keller

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Liu, X.M., Gill, B.S. & Chen, M. Hessian fly resistance gene H13 is mapped to a distal cluster of resistance genes in chromosome 6DS of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 111, 243–249 (2005).

Download citation


  • Wheat
  • Hessian fly
  • Resistance gene
  • H13
  • Gene mapping
  • Marker