Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.)
- 308 Downloads
The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum–shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum–shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (♀) and A. fistulosum (♂). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum–shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3′H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A.
KeywordsFlavonoid Quercetin Kaempferol Flavonoid Biosynthesis Dihydroquercetin
The authors sincerely thank Dr T. Tsushida of National Food Research Institute for providing flavonoid standards. We are grateful to Mr Toyoshi Iwata, Shippo Seed Co., LTD, Kagawa, Japan, for providing financial support for this study. We also thank Ms S. Mishina, Mr T. Utsunomiya and Ms M. Kanto for their contributions to this study. We would like to acknowledge the technical expertise of the DNA Core facility of the Center for Gene Research, Yamaguchi University, supported by a grant-in-aid by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan.
- Chevre AM, Eber F, Barret P, Dupuy P, Brace J (1997) Identification of the different Brassica nigra chromosomes from both sets of B. oleracea–B. nigra and B. napus–B. nigra addition lines with a special emphasis on chromosome transmission and self-incompatibility. Theor Appl Genet 94:603–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davis GN, El-Shafie MW (1967) Inheritance of bulb color in the onion (Allium cepa L.). Hilgardia 38:607–622Google Scholar
- Hizume M (1993) Chromosomal localization of 5S rRNA genes in Vicia faba and Crepis capillaris. Cytologia 58:417–421Google Scholar
- Kik C (2002) Exploitation of wild relatives for the breeding of cultivated Allium species. In: Rabinowitch HD, Currah L (eds) Allium crop science: recent advances. CABI publishing, Wallingford, pp 81–100Google Scholar
- Masuzaki S, Araki N, Yamane N, Yamauchi N, Wako T, Kojima A, Shigyo M (2006) Chromosomal locations of microsatellites in onion. HortScience (in press)Google Scholar
- Patil BS, Pike LM (1995) Distribution of quercetin content in different rings of various colored onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars. J Hortic Sci 70:643–650Google Scholar
- Rieman GH (1931) Genetic factors for pigmentation in the onion and their relation to disease resistance. J Agric Res 42:251–278Google Scholar
- Tsushida T, Suzuki M (1995) Isolation of flavonoid-glycosides in onion and identification by chemical synthesis of the glycosides. J Jpn Soc Food Sci Technol 42:100–108Google Scholar
- Tsushida T, Suzuki M (1996) Content of flavonol glucosides and some properties of enzymes metabolizing the glucosides in onion. J Jpn Soc Food Sci Technol 43:642–649Google Scholar