Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.)
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The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum–shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum–shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (♀) and A. fistulosum (♂). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum–shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3′H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A.
KeywordsFlavonoid Quercetin Kaempferol Flavonoid Biosynthesis Dihydroquercetin
The authors sincerely thank Dr T. Tsushida of National Food Research Institute for providing flavonoid standards. We are grateful to Mr Toyoshi Iwata, Shippo Seed Co., LTD, Kagawa, Japan, for providing financial support for this study. We also thank Ms S. Mishina, Mr T. Utsunomiya and Ms M. Kanto for their contributions to this study. We would like to acknowledge the technical expertise of the DNA Core facility of the Center for Gene Research, Yamaguchi University, supported by a grant-in-aid by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan.
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