Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Characterization of lipoxygenase-1 null mutants in barley


This study describes the discovery and characterization of lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) null mutants in barley. Six lines did not exhibit any significant LOX activity in the silenced seed extract. Immunological analysis showed that these lines lacked the authentic LOX-1 protein. Genetic analysis of the F2 population revealed that this trait was governed by a single recessive gene located at the LoxA locus on chromosome 4H. The six LOX-1 null mutants shared similar features and the same unique polymorphism in a structural gene region, implying that these mutants might be derived from the same ancestral origin.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. Bauer C, Grosch W, Weiser H, Jugel H (1977) Enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid: formation of bittertasting fatty acids. Z Lebensm Unters-Forsh 164:171–176

  2. Baxter ED (1982) Lipoxydase in malting and mashing. J Inst Brew 88:390–396

  3. Davies CS, Nielsen NC (1986) Genetic analysis of a null-allele for lipoxygenase-2 in soybean. Crop Sci 26:460–463

  4. Doderer A, Kokkelink I, van Der Veen S, Valk B, Schram AW, Douma AC (1992) Purification and characterization of two lipoxygenase isozymes from germinating barley. Biochem Biophys Acta 1120:97–104

  5. Drost BW, van den Berg R, Freijee FJM, van der Velde EG, Holleman SM (1990) Flavor stability. J Am Soc Brew Chem 48:124–131

  6. Graner A, Jahoor A, Schondelmaier J, Siedler H, Pillen K, Fischback G, Wenzel G, Herrmann RG (1991) Construction of an RFLP map of barley. Theor Appl Genet 83:250–256

  7. Hildebrand DF, Hymowitz T (1982) Inheritance of lipoxgenase-1 activity in soybean seeds. Crop Sci 22:851–853

  8. Jiang ZY, Woollard ACS, Wollff SP (1991) Lipid hydroperoxide measurement of Fe2+ in the presence of Xylenol Orange. Comparison with the TBA assay and an iodometric method. LIPIDS 26:853–856

  9. Kaneda H, Takashio M, Shinotsuka K, Okahata Y (2001) Adsorption and desorption of beer components from a lipid membrane related to sensory evaluation. J Biosci Bioeng 92:221–226

  10. Kaneko T, Hirota N, Yokoi S, Kanatani R, Ito K (1999) Molecular marker for protein Z content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Breed Sci 49:69–74

  11. Kaneko T, Zhang WS, Ito K, Takeda K (2001) Worldwide distribution of β-amylase thermostability in barley. Euphytica 121:223–228

  12. Kitamura K, Davies CS, Kaizuma N, Nielsen NC (1983) Genetic analysis of a null-allele for lipoxygenase-3 in soybean seeds. Crop Sci 23:924–927

  13. Kobayashi N, Kaneda H, Kano Y, Koshino S (1993) The production of linoleic acid hydroperoxides during mashing. J Ferment Bioeng 76:371–375

  14. Kobayashi N, Segawa S, Umemoto S, Kuroda H, Kaneda H, Mitani Y, Watari J, Takashio M (2002) A new method for evaluating foam-damaging effect by fatty acid. J Am Soc Brew Chem 60:37–41

  15. Kuroda H, Kobayashi N, Kaneda H, Watari J, Takashio M (2002) Characterization of factors that transform linoleic acid into di- and trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid in mash. J Biosci Bioeng 93:73–77

  16. Kuroda H, Furusyo S, Maeba H, Takashio M (2003) Characterization of factors involved in the production of 2(E)-nonenal during mashing. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:691–697

  17. Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincoln SE, Newburg L (1987) MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage map of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1:174–181

  18. Meilgaard MC (1975) Flavor chemistry of beer: Part II: Flavor and threshold of 239 aroma volatiles. MBAA Tech Q 12:151–168

  19. Miyazaki C, Osanai E, Saeki K, Hirota N, Ito K, Konishi T, Saito A (2000) A barley linkage map using an F2 population compared with a map based on female recombination-derived double haploid lines. Breed Sci 50:241–250

  20. Narvel JM, Fehr WR, Welke GA (1998) Agromnomic and seed traits of soybean lines lacking seed lipoxygenases. Crop Sci 38:926–928

  21. Santino A, De Paolis A, Gallo A, Quarta A, Casey R, Mita G (2003) Biochemical and molecular characterization of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) seed lipoxygenases. Eur J Biochem 270:4365–4375

  22. Takahashi R (1955) The origin and evolution of cultivated barley. Adv Genet 7:227–266

  23. Van Mechelen JR, Smit M, Douma AC, Rouster J, Cameron-Mills V, Heidekamp F, Valk BE (1995) Primary structure of a lipoxygenase from barley grain as deduced from its cDNA sequence. Biochem Biophys Acta 1254:221–225

  24. Van Mechelen JR, Schuurink RC, Smits M, Graner A, Douma AC, Sedee NJA, Schmitt NF, Valk BE (1999) Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley. Plant Mol Biol 39:1283–1289

  25. Yabuuchi S (1976) Occurrence of a new lipoxygenase in germinating barley embryo. Agric Biol Chem 40:1987–1992

  26. Yabuuchi S, Yamashita H (1979) Gas chromatographic determination of trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid in beer. J Inst Brew 85:216–218

  27. Yang G, Schwarz PB, Vick BA (1993) Purification and characterzation of lipoxygenase isozymes in germinating barley. Cereal Chem 70:589–595

  28. Yang G, Schwarz PB (1995) Activity of lipoxygenase isozymes during malting and mashing. J Am Brew Chem 53:45–49

Download references


We thank Dr. A. Graner for generously providing the RFLP probes. We also thank Mr. Syouichi Arai, Mr. Wataru Saito, Dr. Ryouichi Kanatani and Dr. Kensuke Ogushi for their excellent maintenance of the plant materials.

Author information

Correspondence to N. Hirota.

Additional information

Communicated by J. W. Snape

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hirota, N., Kaneko, T., Kuroda, H. et al. Characterization of lipoxygenase-1 null mutants in barley. Theor Appl Genet 111, 1580–1584 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-005-0088-y

Download citation


  • Barley
  • Lipoxygenase-1
  • Null mutant
  • Gene mapping
  • Molecular marker