Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 392–402 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and geographic pattern in early South American cotton domestication

Original Paper


Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting was applied to survey the genetic diversity of primitive South American Gossypium barbadense cotton for establishing a possible link to its pre-Columbian expansion. New germplasm was collected along coastal Peru and over an Andean transect in areas where most of the archaeological evidence relating to cotton domestication has been recorded. Gene bank material of three diploid (G. raimondii, G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) and four allotetraploid cotton species (G. hirsutum, G. mustelinum, G. tomentosum and additional G. barbadense) was added for inter- and intra-specific comparison. Eight primer combinations yielded 340 polymorphic bands among the 131 accessions. The obtained neighbor joining and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means are in full agreement with the known cytogenetics of the tetraploid cottons and their diploid genome donors. The four tetraploid species are clearly distinct based on taxonomic classification. The genetic diversity within G. barbadense reveals geographic patterns. The locally maintained cottons from coastal Peru display a distinct genetic diversity that mirrors their primitive agro-morphological traits. Accessions from the northernmost coast of Peru and from southwestern (SW) Ecuador cluster basal to the east-of-Andes accessions. The remaining accessions from Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean and Pacific islands cluster with the east-of-Andes accessions. Northwestern Peru/SW Ecuador (the area flanking the Guayaquil gulf) appears to be the center of the primitive domesticated G. barbadense cotton from where it spread over the Andes and expanded into its pre-Columbian range.


Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Peru Prime Combination Ecuador Neighbor Join 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Dr. E. Percival (USDA-ARS, Texas) for providing seed material. We also extend our gratitude to J. Lazo, G. Arevalo, F. Balavarca, and C. Basurto for assistance and information; K. Ramirez and M.R. Pastor at INRENA for obtaining the permission to collect and export the germplasm; M. White, C. Deza, E. Rodriguez, and V. Medina for accompanying the collecting efforts in La Libertad; M.I. Olivos Farro and J. Escurra Puicon for collaboration in Lambayeque; P.M. Reyes More for information; E. Manco for access to PRONIRGEB germplasm; P. Azang Huaman for collaboration in San Martin (all in Peru). Thanks are also due to K. Vollan and J.H. Sønstebø for their advice and technical assistance during laboratory work at AUN, Norway.


  1. Abdalla AM, Reddy OUK, El-Zik KM, Pepper AE (2001) Genetic diversity and relationships of diploid and tetraploid cottons revealed using AFLP. Theor Appl Genet 102:222–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brubaker CL, Wendel JF (1994) Reevaluating the origin of domesticated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Malvaceae) using nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Am J Bot 81:1309–1326Google Scholar
  3. Brubaker CL, Bourland FM, Wendel JF (1999) The origin and domestication of cotton. In: Smith CW, Cothren JT (eds) Cotton: origin history, technology, and production, 1st edn. Wiley, New York, pp 3–31Google Scholar
  4. Cronn RC, Zhao XP, Paterson AH, Wendel JF (1996) Polymorphism and concerted evolution in a tandemly repeated gene family: 5S ribosomal DNA in diploid and allopolyploid cottons. J Mol Evol 42:685–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cronn RC, Small RL, Wendel JF (1999) Duplicated genes evolve independently after polyploid formation in cotton. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:14406–14411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cronn RC, Small RL, Haselkorn T, Wendel JF (2002) Rapid diversification of the cotton genus (Gossypium: Malvaceae) revealed by analysis of sixteen nuclear and chloroplast genes. Am J Bot 89:707–725Google Scholar
  7. Dejoode DR, Wendel JF (1992) Genetic diversity and origin of the Hawaiian-Islands cotton, Gossypium tomentosum. Am J Bot 79:1311–1319Google Scholar
  8. Dice LR (1945) Measures of the amount of ecologic association between species. Ecology 26:297–308Google Scholar
  9. Drossou A, Katsiotis A, Leggett JM, Loukas M, Tsakas S (2004) Genome and species relationships in genus Avena based on RAPD and AFLP molecular markers. Theor Appl Genet 109:48–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. El-Rabey HA, Badr A, Schafer-Pregl R, Martin W, Salamini F (2002) Speciation and species separation in Hordeum L. (Poaceae) resolved by discontinuous molecular markers. Plant Biol 4:567–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Endrizzi JE, Turcotte EL, Kohel RJ (1985) Genetics, cytology, and evolution of Gossypium. Adv Genet 23:271–375Google Scholar
  12. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791Google Scholar
  13. Fernandez HAM, Rodriguez REF, Westengen O (2003) Biología y Etnobotánica del Algodón Nativo Peruano (Gossypium barbadense L., Malvaceae). Arnaldoa 10:93–108Google Scholar
  14. Fryxell PA (1992) A revised taxonomic interpretation of Gossypium L., (Malvacea). Rheedea 2:108–165Google Scholar
  15. Heun M, SchaferPregl R, Klawan D, Castagna R, Accerbi M, Borghi B, Salamini F (1997) Site of einkorn wheat domestication identified by DNA fingerprinting. Science 278:1312–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hutchinson JB, Silow RA, Stephens SG (1947) The evolution of Gossypium and the differentiation of the cultivated cottons, 1st edn. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Kardolus JP, van Eck HJ, van den Berg RG (1998) The potential of AFLPs in biosystematics: a first application in Solanum taxonomy (Solanaceae). Plant Syst Evol 210:87–103Google Scholar
  18. Lacape JM, Nguyen TB, Thibivilliers S, Bojinov B, Courtois B, Cantrell RG, Burr B, Hau B (2003) A combined RFLP-SSR-AFLP map of tetraploid cotton based on a Gossypium hirsutum×Gossypium barbadense backcross population. Genome 46:612–626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu Q, Brubaker CL, Green AG, Marshall DR, Sharp PJ, Singh SP (2001) Evolution of the FAD2-1 fatty acid desaturase 5′ UTR intron and the molecular systematics of Gossypium (Malvaceae). Am J Bot 88:92–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. First evidence of cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakistan: analysis of mineralized fibres from a copper bead. J Archaeol Sci 29:1393–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nei M, Li WH (1979) Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5269–5273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Percival AE, Kohel RJ (1990) Distribution, collection, and evaluation of Gossypium. Adv Agron 44:225–256Google Scholar
  23. Percy RG, Wendel JF (1990) Allozyme evidence for the origin and diversification of Gossypium barbadense L. Theor Appl Genet 79:529–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Phillips LL (1963) The cytogenetics of Gossypium and the origin of New World cottons. Evolution 17:460–469Google Scholar
  25. Phillips LL (1964) Segregation in new allopolyploids of Gossypium. V. Multivalent formation in New World × Asiatic and New World × wild American Hexaploid. Am J Bot 51:324–329Google Scholar
  26. Piperno DR, Pearsall DM (1998) The origins of agriculture in the lowland Neotropics. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  27. Rohlf FJ (2000) Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, ver. 2.11. Applied Biostatistics, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Rossen J, Dillehay TD, Ugent D (1996) Ancient cultigens or modern intrusions? Evaluating plant remains in an Andean case study. J Archaeol Sci 23:391–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbour-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sasanuma T, Chabane K, Endo TR, Valkoun J (2004) Characterization of genetic variation in and phylogenetic relationships among diploid Aegilops species by AFLP: incongruity of chloroplast and nuclear data. Theor Appl Genet 108:612–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Schwendiman J, Ano G, Percival AE (1986) Cotton collecting in continental Ecuador and Galapagos Islands. FAO/IPBGR Plant Genet Resources Newsl 64:33–37Google Scholar
  32. Seelanan T, Schnabel A, Wendel JF (1997) Congruence and consensus in the cotton tribe (Malvaceae). Syst Bot 22:259–290Google Scholar
  33. Seelanan T, Brubaker CL, Stewart JM, Craven LA, Wendel JF (1999) Molecular systematics of Australian Gossypium section Grandicalyx (Malvaceae). Syst Bot 24:183–208Google Scholar
  34. Senchina DS, Alvarez I, Cronn RC, Liu B, Rong JK, Noyes RD, Paterson AH, Wing RA, Wilkins TA, Wendel JF (2003) Rate variation among nuclear genes and the age of polyploidy in Gossypium. Mol Biol Evol 20:633–643Google Scholar
  35. Small RL, Wendel JF (2000) Phylogeny, duplication, and intraspecific variation of Adh sequences in new world diploid cottons (Gossypium L., Malvaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol 16:73–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Small RL, Ryburn JA, Cronn RC, Seelanan T, Wendel JF (1998) The tortoise and the hare: choosing between noncoding plastome and nuclear ADH sequences for phylogeny reconstruction in a recently diverged plant group. Am J Bot 85:1301–1315Google Scholar
  37. Small RL, Ryburn JA, Wendel JF (1999) Low levels of nucleotide diversity at homoeologous Adh loci in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium L.). Mol Biol Evol 16:491–501Google Scholar
  38. Sokal RR, Sneath PHA (1963) Principles of numerical taxonomy. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  39. Solis RS, Haas J, Creamer W (2001) Dating caral, a preceramic site in the Supe Valley on the central coast of Peru. Science 292:723–726CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Stephens SG (1944) Phenogenetic evidence for the amphidiploid origin of New World cottons. Nature 153:53–54Google Scholar
  41. Stephens SG (1975) A reexamination of the cotton remains from Huaca Prieta, North Coastal Peru. Am Antiquity 40:406–419Google Scholar
  42. Stephens SG, Moseley EM (1973) Cotton Remains from archeological sites in central coastal Peru. Science 180:186–188Google Scholar
  43. Stephens SG, Moseley ME (1974) Early domesticated cottons from archaeological sites in central coastal Peru. Am Antiquity 39:109–122Google Scholar
  44. Sudupak MA, Akkaya MS, Kence A (2004) Genetic relationships among perennial and annual Cicer species growing in Turkey assessed by AFLP fingerprinting. Theor Appl Genet 108:937–944CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Swofford DL (1998) paup*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods) ver. 4.0b10 for Macintosh. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  46. Turcotte EL, Percy RG (1990) Genetics of kidney seed in Gossypium barbadense L. Crop Sci 30:384–386Google Scholar
  47. Ude G, Pillay M, Nwakanma D, Tenkouano A (2002) Analysis of genetic diversity and sectional relationships in Musa using AFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 104:1239–1245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, Vandelee T, Hornes M, Frijters A, Pot J, Peleman J, Kuiper M, Zabeau M (1995) AFLP—a new technique for DNA-fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23:4407–4414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Vreeland JM (1999) The revival of colored cotton. Sci Am 280:112–118Google Scholar
  50. Wendel JF (1989) New world tetraploid cottons contain Old-World cytoplasm. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:4132–4136Google Scholar
  51. Wendel JF (1995) Cotton. In: Simmonds S, Smartt J (eds) Evolution of crop plants, 1st edn. Longman, London, pp 358–366Google Scholar
  52. Wendel JF, Albert VA (1992) Phylogenetics of the cotton genus (Gossypium)—character-state weighted Parsimony analysis of chloroplast-DNA restriction site data and its systematic and biogeographic implications. Syst Bot 17:115–143Google Scholar
  53. Wendel JF, Cronn RC (2003) Polyploidy and the evolutionary history of cotton. Adv Agron 78:139–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wendel JF, Percy RG (1990) Allozyme diversity and introgression in the Galapagos-Islands endemic Gossypium darwinii and its relationship to continental Gossypium barbadense. Biochem Syst Ecol 18:517–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wendel JF, Rowley R, Stewart JM (1994) Genetic diversity in and phylogenetic-relationships of the Brazilian endemic cotton, Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae). Plant Syst Evol 192:49–59Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ola T. Westengen
    • 1
  • Zósimo Huamán
    • 2
  • Manfred Heun
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Natural Resource ManagementAgricultural University of NorwayAasNorway
  2. 2.PROBIOANDESLimaPeru

Personalised recommendations