Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 269–275 | Cite as

The potato P locus codes for flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase

  • Chun Suk Jung
  • Helen M. Griffiths
  • Darlene M. De Jong
  • Shuping Cheng
  • Mary Bodis
  • Walter S. De JongEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The potato P locus is required for the production of blue/purple anthocyanin pigments in any tissue of the potato plant such as tubers, flowers, or stems. We have previously reported, based on RFLP mapping in tomato, that the gene coding for the anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (f35h) maps to the same region of the tomato genome as P maps in potato. To further evaluate this association a Petunia f35h gene was used to screen a potato cDNA library prepared from purple-colored flowers and stems. Six positively hybridizing cDNA clones were sequenced and all appeared to be derived from a single gene that shares 85% sequence identity at the amino acid level with Petunia f35h. The potato gene cosegregated with purple tuber color in a diploid F1 sub-population of 37 purple and 25 red individuals and was found to be expressed in tuber skin only in the presence of the anthocyanin regulatory locus I. A potato f35h cDNA clone was placed under the control of a doubled CaMV 35S promoter and introduced into the red-skinned cultivar ‘Désirée’. Tuber and stem tissues that are colored red in Désirée were purple in nine of 17 independently transformed lines.

Keywords

Pelargonidin Anthocyanin Pigment Functional Allele Timentin Petunidin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank J. Van Eck for the transformation protocol, K. Paddock and M. Compton for maintenance of field and greenhouse plants, K. Loeffler for photography, and H. De Jong for reviewing the manuscript. This work was supported in part by Federal Hatch funds provided to W.D.

References

  1. De Jong H (1987) Inheritance of pigmented tuber flesh in cultivated diploid potatoes. Am Potato J 64:337–343Google Scholar
  2. De Jong H (1991) Inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in the cultivated potato: a critical review. Am Potato J 68:585–593Google Scholar
  3. De Jong H, Burns VJ (1993) Inheritance of tuber shape in cultivated diploid potatoes. Am Potato J 70:267–283Google Scholar
  4. De Jong WS, De Jong DM, Bodis M (2003a) A fluorogenic 5′ nuclease (TaqMan) assay to assess dosage of a marker tightly linked to red skin color in autotetraploid potato. Theor Appl Genet 107:1384–1390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. De Jong WS, De Jong DM, De Jong H, Kalazich J, Bodis M (2003b) An allele of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase associated with the ability to produce red anthocyanin pigments in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Theor Appl Genet 107:1375–1383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. De Jong WS, Eannetta NT, De Jong DM, Bodis M (2004) Candidate gene analysis of anthocyanin pigmentation loci in the Solanaceae. Theor Appl Genet 108:423–432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dodds KS, Long DH (1955) The inheritance of colour in diploid potatoes. I. Types of anthocyanidins and their genetic loci. J Genet 53:136–149Google Scholar
  8. Dodds KS, Long DH (1956) The inheritance of colour in diploid potatoes. II. A three-factor linkage group. J Genet 54:27–41Google Scholar
  9. Durst F, Nelson DR (1995) Diversity and evolution of plant P450 and P450-reductases. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 12:189–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Holton TA, Cornish EC (1995) Genetics and biochemistry of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Plant Cell 7:1071–1083CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Holton TA, Brugliera F, Lester DR, Tanaka Y, Hyland CD, Menting JGT, Lu CY, Farcy E, Stevensen TW, Cornish EC (1993) Cloning and expression of cytochrome P450 genes controlling flower colour. Nature 366:276–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang Z, Mason HS (2004) Conformational analysis of hepatitis B surface antigen fusions in an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system. Plant Biotechnol J 2:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lewis CE, Walker JRL, Lancaster JE, Sutton KH (1998) Determination of anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids in potatoes. I: Coloured cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. J Sci Food Agric 77:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marchler-Bauer A, Anderson JB, DeWeese-Scott C, Fedorova ND, Geer LY, He S, Hurwitz DI, Jackson JD, Jacobs AR, Lanczycki CJ, Liebert CA, Liu C, Madej T, Marchler GH, Mazumder R, Nikolskaya AN, Panchenko AR, Rao BS, Shoemaker BA, Simonyan V, Song JS, Thiessen PA, Vasudevan S, Wang Y, Yamashita RA, Yin JJ, Bryant SH (2003) CDD: a curated Entrez database of conserved domain alignments. Nucleic Acids Res 31:383–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mol J, Grotewold E, Koes R (1998) How genes paint flowers and seeds. Trends Plant Sci 3:212–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Naumann A, Horst WJ (2003) Effect of aluminum supply on aluminum uptake, translocation, and blueing of Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. cultivars in a peat clay substrate. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 78:463–469Google Scholar
  17. Noda K, Glover BJ, Linstead P, Martin C (1994) Flower colour intensity depends on specialized cell shape controlled by a Myb-related transcription factor. Nature 369:661–664.Google Scholar
  18. Salaman RN (1910) The inheritance of colour and other characters in the potato. J Genet 1:7–46Google Scholar
  19. Van Eck HJ, Jacobs JME, van Dijk J, Stiekema WJ, Jacobsen E (1993) Identification and mapping of three flower colour loci of potato (S. tuberosum) by RFLP analysis. Theor Appl Genet 86:295–300Google Scholar
  20. Van Eck HJ, Jacobs JME, Van Den Berg PMMM, Stiekema WJ, Jacobsen E (1994) The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and mapping of tuber skin colour loci using RFLPs. Heredity 73:410–421Google Scholar
  21. Yoshida K, Kondo T, Okazaki Y, Katuo K (1995) Cause of blue petal colour. Nature 373:291CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chun Suk Jung
    • 1
  • Helen M. Griffiths
    • 1
  • Darlene M. De Jong
    • 1
  • Shuping Cheng
    • 1
  • Mary Bodis
    • 1
  • Walter S. De Jong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant BreedingCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations