Analysis of T-DNA-Xa21 loci and bacterial blight resistance effects of the transgene Xa21 in transgenic rice
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The genetic loci and phenotypic effects of the transgene Xa21, a bacterial blight (BB) resistance gene cloned from rice, were investigated in transgenic rice produced through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. The flanking sequences of integrated T-DNAs were isolated from Xa21 transgenic rice lines using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based on the analysis of 24 T-DNA- Xa21 flanking sequences, T-DNA loci in rice could be classified into three types: the typical T-DNA integration with the definite left and right borders, the T-DNA integration linked with the adjacent vector backbone sequences and the T-DNA integration involved in a complicated recombination in the flanking sequences. The T-DNA integration in rice was similar to that in dicotyledonous genomes but was significantly different from the integration produced through direct DNA transformation approaches. All three types of integrated transgene Xa21 could be stably inherited and expressed the BB resistance through derived generations in their respective transgenic lines. The flanking sequences of the typical T-DNA integration consisted of actual rice genomic DNA and could be used as probes to locate the transgene on the rice genetic map. A total of 15 different rice T-DNA flanking sequences were identified. They displayed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) between two rice varieties, ZYQ8 and JX17, and were mapped on rice chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 12, respectively, by using a double haploid population derived from a cross between ZYQ8 and JX17. The blast search and homology comparison of the rice T-DNA flanking sequences with the rice chromosome-anchored sequence database confirmed the RFLP mapping results. On the basis of genetic mapping of the T-DNA- Xa21 loci, the BB resistance effects of the transgene Xa21 at different chromosome locations were investigated using homozygous transgenic lines with only one copy of the transgene. Among the transgenic lines, no obvious position effects of the transgene Xa21 were observed. In addition, the BB resistance levels of the Xa21 transgenic plants with different transgene copy numbers and on different genetic backgrounds were also investigated. It was observed that genetic background (or genome) effects were more obvious than dosage effects and position effects on the BB resistance level of the transgenic plants.
KeywordsTransgenic Plant Double Haploid Transgenic Rice Flank Sequence Left Border
We thank Dr. Guoliang Wang, Ohio State University and Dr. Wenyuan Song, University of Florida, USA for their assistance on the Xa21 gene and transformation; Prof. Qi Zhang and Dr. Yongli Zhou, Institute of Crop Breeding and Cultivation, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for their assistance on BB resistance analysis; Dr Qian Qian, the Chinese Rice Institute for providing rice varieties. This project was supported by grants from the National 863 High Technology Foundation of China (2002AA212131), the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (30270857), the Chinese Transgenic Plant Program (JY03A08) and the Rockefeller Foundation’s Rice Biotechnology Program.
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