Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 108, Issue 7, pp 1236–1242 | Cite as

Monophyletic origin of naked barley inferred from molecular analyses of a marker closely linked to the naked caryopsis gene (nud)

  • S. Taketa
  • S. Kikuchi
  • T. Awayama
  • S. Yamamoto
  • M. Ichii
  • S. Kawasaki
Original Paper

Abstract

To elucidate the origin of naked barley, molecular variation of the marker sKT7 tightly linked to the nud locus was examined. A total of 259 (53 wild, 106 hulled domesticated, and 100 naked domesticated) barley accessions were studied. Restriction analysis of the sKT7 PCR-amplified product revealed the alleles I, II, III, and IV. All four alleles were found in wild barley, but allele IV was found only in a single accession from southwestern Iran. Hulled domesticated accessions showed alleles I, II, or III, but all naked domesticated accessions had allele IV. The distribution of allele IV in wild barley and its pervasive presence in naked domesticated lines support the conclusion that naked barley has a monophyletic origin, probably in southwestern Iran. The available results suggest two scenarios for the origin of naked barley: either directly from a wild barley with allele IV or from a hulled domesticated line with allele IV that later became extinct. Naked domesticated accessions from different regions of the world have extremely homogeneous DNA sequences at the sKT7 locus, supporting the monophyletic origin of naked barley. For allele IV, four haplotypes (IVb to IVe) were found in 30 naked accessions: IVb was predominant (66.7%) and widely distributed, while the other three haplotypes, differing by only one nucleotide at different positions relative to IVb, showed a localized distribution. The geographical distribution of the haplotypes of sKT7 allele IV suggests migration routes of naked domesticated barley in central and eastern Asia.

Keywords

Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Wild Barley Hull Form Barley Accession Monophyletic Origin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Dr. K. Sato (Okayama University) and Dr. M. Fujita (presently, National Institute of Crop Science) for the supply of barley germplasms. DNA sequencing was performed at the Gene Research Center, Kagawa University. We sincerely thank Prof. Dr. F. Salamini for his valuable suggestions. This research was supported in part by Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (15580007) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports, Japan.

References

  1. Badr A, Miller K, Schafer-Pregl R, El Rabey H, Effegen S, Ibrahim HH, Pozzi C, Rohde W, Salamini F (2000) On the origin and domestication history of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Mol Biol Evol 4:499–510Google Scholar
  2. Bothmer R von, Jacobsen N, Baden C, Jørgensen RB, Linde-Laursen I (1955) An ecogeographical study of the genus Hordeum, 2nd edn. Systematic and ecogeographic studies on crop genepools 7. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. Fedak G, Tsuchiya T, Helgason SB (1972) Use of monotelotrisomics for linkage mapping in barley. Can J Genet Cytol 14:949–957Google Scholar
  4. Halbaek H (1959) Domestication of food plants in the old world. Science 153:365–372Google Scholar
  5. Harlan JR (1995) Barley. In: Simmonds N (ed) Evolution of crop plants, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London, pp 140–147Google Scholar
  6. Kawasaki S, Murakami Y (2000) Genome analysis of Lotus japonicus. J Plant Res 113:497–506Google Scholar
  7. Kikuchi S, Taketa S, Ichii M, Kawasaki S. Efficient fine mapping of the naked caryopsis gene (nud) by HEGS (high-efficiency genome scanning)/AFLP in barley. Theor Appl Genet 108:73–78. DOI  10.1007/s00122-003-1413-y Google Scholar
  8. Komatsuda T, Nakamura I, Takaiwa F, Oka S (1998) Development of STS markers closely linked to the vrs1 locus in barley, Hordeum vulgare. Genome 41:680–685Google Scholar
  9. Konishi T (1995) Geographical diversity of isozyme genotypes in barley. Kyushu University Press, Fukuoka, JapanGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu CT, Wesenberg DM, Hunt CW, Branen AL, Robertson LD, Burrup DE, Dempster KL, Haggerty RJ (1996) Hulless barley: a new look for barley in Idaho. Resources for Idaho http://info.ag.uidaho.edu/
  11. Rossnagel BG (2000) Hulless barley—western Canada’s corn. In: Logue S (ed) Barley genetics VIII. Proceedings of the 8th International Barley Genetics Symposium, pp 135–142Google Scholar
  12. Salamini F, Özkan H, Brandolini A, Schäfer-Pregl R, Martin W (2002) Genetics and geography of wild cereal domestication in the Near East. Nat Rev Genet 3:429–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Scholz F (1955) Mutationsversuche an Kulturpflanzen. IV. Über den züchterischen Wert zwei röntgeninduzierter Gerstenmutanten. Kulturpflanze 3:69–89Google Scholar
  14. Strelchenko P, Kovalyova O, Okuno K (1999) Genetic differentiation and geographical distribution of barley germplasm based on RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 46:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Takahashi R (1955) The origin and evolution of cultivated barley. Adv Genet 7:227–266Google Scholar
  16. Takahashi R, Yamamoto J (1950) Studies on the classification and the geographical distribution of the Japanese barley varieties. 13. The hulled and naked caryopsis character (in Japanese). Nogaku Kenkyu 39:32–36Google Scholar
  17. Takahashi R, Inamura H, Matsumoto T (1962) Effects of the genes for covered and naked kernels on some agronomic characters in barley. I. Comparison of two covered barleys and their naked mutants. Ber Ohara Inst lndw Biol Okayama Univ 11:385–392Google Scholar
  18. Tanno K, Taketa S, Takeda K, Komatsuda T (2002) A DNA marker closely linked to the vrs1 locus (row-type gene) indicates multiple origins of six-rowed cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor Appl Genet 104:54–60Google Scholar
  19. Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, Lee TVD, Hornes M, Frijters A, Pot J, Peleman J, Kuiper M, Zabeau M (1995) AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23:4407–4414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Zohary D (1963) Spontaneous brittle six-rowed barley, their nature and origin. Barley genetics I. Proceedings of the 1st International Barley Genetics Symposium, Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp 27–31Google Scholar
  21. Zohary D, Hopf M (2000) Domestication of plants in the old world: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe and the Nile Valley. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Taketa
    • 1
  • S. Kikuchi
    • 1
  • T. Awayama
    • 1
  • S. Yamamoto
    • 1
  • M. Ichii
    • 1
  • S. Kawasaki
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityKagawaJapan
  2. 2.National Institute of Agrobiological SciencesIbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations