Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 108, Issue 6, pp 1089–1097 | Cite as

Wheat puroindolines interact to form friabilin and control wheat grain hardness

  • A. C. Hogg
  • T. Sripo
  • B. Beecher
  • J. M. Martin
  • M. J. Giroux
Original Paper


Wheat grain is sold based upon several physiochemical characteristics, one of the most important being grain texture. Grain texture in wheat directly affects many end use qualities such as milling yield, break flour yield, and starch damage. The hardness (Ha) locus located on the short arm of chromosome 5D is known to control grain hardness in wheat. This locus contains the puroindoline A (pina) and puroindoline B (pinb) genes. All wheats to date that have mutations in pina or pinb are hard textured, while wheats possessing both the ‘soft type’ pina-D1a and pinb-D1a sequences are soft. Furthermore, it has been shown that complementation of the pinb-D1b mutation in hard spring wheat can restore a soft phenotype. Here, our objective was to identify and characterize the effect the puroindoline genes have on grain texture independently and together. To accomplish this we transformed a hard red spring wheat possessing a pinb-D1b mutation with ‘soft type’ pina and pinb, creating transgenic isolines that have added pina, pinb, or pina and pinb. Northern blot analysis of developing control and transgenic lines indicated that grain hardness differences were correlated with the timing of the expression of the native and transgenically added puroindoline genes. The addition of PINA decreased grain hardness less than the reduction seen with added PINB. Seeds from lines having more ‘soft type’ PINB than PINA were the softest. Friabilin abundance was correlated with the presence of both ‘soft type’ PINA and PINB and did not correlate well with total puroindoline abundance. The data indicates that PINA and PINB interact to form friabilin and together affect wheat grain texture.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. Hogg
    • 1
  • T. Sripo
    • 1
  • B. Beecher
    • 1
    • 3
  • J. M. Martin
    • 1
  • M. J. Giroux
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Science and Plant Pathology, Agriculture and Biological Sciences FacultyMontana State University-BozemanBozemanUSA
  2. 2.Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pathology, Faculty of MedicinePrince of Songkla UniversityHatyai, SongklaThailand
  3. 3. Institute of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

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