Molecular mapping of capsaicinoid biosynthesis genes and quantitative trait loci analysis for capsaicinoid content in Capsicum
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- Blum, E., Mazourek, M., O'Connell, M. et al. Theor Appl Genet (2003) 108: 79. doi:10.1007/s00122-003-1405-y
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Quantitative variation in the accumulation of two major capsaicinoids responsible for pungency in the fruit of chile peppers, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, was analyzed in a cross between the non-pungent Capsicum annuum parent cv. Maor and a pungent Capsicum frutescens parent, accession BG 2816. In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for capsaicinoid content, we employed the bulked segregant analysis method and screened bulked DNA from F2 individuals at the extremes of the distribution of capsaicinoid content with RAPD primers. Screening with 400 primers allowed the identification of three loci that were polymorphic between the bulks. These RAPD markers were converted to SCARs and subsequently mapped with additional RFLP markers to chromosome 7 of pepper. QTL interval analysis for individual and total capsaicinoid content identified a major QTL, termed cap, which explained 34–38% of the phenotypic variation for this trait in two growing environments. For all measurements, the allele of the pungent parent BG 2816 at cap contributed to the increased level of pungency. To determine whether known structural genes in the pathway could define a candidate for this QTL, 12 clones obtained from differentially expressed transcripts from placental tissue in pungent peppers were also mapped. None of them had a significant effect on this trait, nor did the allelic state at the locus C, the on/off switch for pungency in pepper, located on chromosome 2. The identity of cap and its effect on capsaicin content in other backgrounds will be addressed in future studies.