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Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 107, Issue 6, pp 1094–1101 | Cite as

Barley putative hypersensitive induced reaction genes: genetic mapping, sequence analyses and differential expression in disease lesion mimic mutants

  • N. Rostoks
  • D. Schmierer
  • D. Kudrna
  • A. Kleinhofs
Article

Abstract

The hypersensitive response (HR) is one of the most-efficient forms of plant defense against biotrophic pathogens, and results in localized cell death and the formation of necrotic lesions; however, the molecular components of pathways leading to HR remain largely unknown. Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) cDNAs for putative hypersensitive-induced reaction (HIR) genes were isolated based on DNA and amino-acid homologies to maize HIR genes. Analyses of the cDNA and genomic sequences and genetic mapping found four distinct barley HIR genes, Hv-hir1, Hv-hir2, Hv-hir3 and Hv-hir4, on chromosomes 4(4H) bin10, 7(5H) bin04, 7(5H) bin07 and 1(7H) bin03, respectively. Hv-hir1, Hv-hir2 and Hv-hir3 genes were highly homologous at both DNA and the deduced amino-acid level, but the Hv-hir4 gene was similar to the other genes only at the amino-acid sequence level. Amino-acid sequence analyses of the barley HIR proteins indicated the presence of the SPFH protein-domain characteristic for the prohibitins and stomatins which are involved in control of the cell cycle and ion channels, as well as in other membrane-associated proteins from bacteria, plants and animals. HIR genes were expressed in all organs and developement stages analyzed, indicating a vital and non-redundant function. Barley fast-neutron mutants exhibiting spontaneous HR (disease lesion mimic mutants) showed up to a 35-fold increase in Hv-hir3 expression, implicating HIR genes in the induction of HR.

Keywords

Barley Lesion-mimic mutants Hypersensitive reaction HIR genes SPFH domain 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This is Scientific Paper No. 090201 from the College of Agriculture and Home Economics Research Center, Washington State University, Pullman, WA; Project 0196. Research was supported by USDA/NRI grant No. 9901325 to A.K. Technical assistance by Kara Johnson and Thomas Drader is gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

Fig. 1. Southern blot image. Cited in Results “Isolation and sequencing of barley HIR genomic clones”

Fig_1_ESM.jpg (43 kb)
Figure 1

Fig. 2. Images of barley FN mutants. Cited in Results “Expression of the HIR genes in barley fast neutron (FN) lesion mimic mutant lines” and in Discussion

Fig_2_ESM.jpg (113 kb)
Figure 2

Table 2 List of Morex BAC clones positive with the HIR probes. Cited in Results " Isolation and sequencing of barley HIR genomic clones”

Table2.pdf (54 kb)
Table 2 (PDF 55 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Rostoks
    • 1
  • D. Schmierer
    • 1
  • D. Kudrna
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. Kleinhofs
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
  2. 2.School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
  3. 3.Arizona Genomics Institute, University of Arizona, 303 Forbes Building, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA

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