Distinction between cultivated and wild chicory gene pools using AFLP markers
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The cultivation area of industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus L. cv Sativum, coincides with the natural distribution area of its wild relative, C. intybus L., which could lead to gene flow between wild and cultivated types. The genetic diversity within and between the two types has therefore been studied using AFLP genotyping of samples from 12 wild populations collected in Belgium and ten commercial varieties. The genotyping of 233 individuals allowed the identification of 254 AFLP markers. Similar levels of genetic diversity were observed within wild populations and cultivated varieties, suggesting the absence of any strong bottleneck in the history of the cultivated types. The phylogenetic analysis pointed to a monophyletic origin of cultivated varieties as compared to the local wild populations studied, hence the two types of chicory form two separate gene pools. The genotyping of some individuals sampled in ruderal sites clearly showed that they belong to the cultivated gene pool, which suggests the existence of feral or weedy types. The low differentiation observed among wild populations indicates that gene flow might be important in this species.
Keywords.Cichorium intybus Chicory AFLP GMO Genetic structure
The financial support of the Région Wallonne, Belgium, is gratefully acknowledged (Programme Wallonie-Développement-Université). Cosucra s.a. supplied seeds of commercial varieties. André Demoulin helped with the localisation of populations of wild chicory. The authors also thank the reviewers for their constructive criticism.
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