Identification of SNPs and development of allele-specific PCR markers for γ-gliadin alleles in Triticum aestivum
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The coding regions of 28 entries of hexaploid wheat γ-gliadin genes, gene fragments or pseudogenes in GenBank were used for nucleotide alignment. These sequences could be divided into nine subgroups based on nucleotide variation. The chromosomal locations of five of the seven unassigned subgroups were identified through subgroup-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using Chinese Spring group-1 nulli-tetrasomic lines. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions were identified in each subgroup. With further mining from wheat expressed sequence tag databases and targeted DNA sequencing, two SNPs were confirmed and one SNP was discovered for genes at the Gli-A1, Gli-B1 and Gli-D1 loci. A modified allele-specific PCR procedure for assaying SNPs was used to generate dominant DNA markers based on these three SNPs. For each of these three SNPs, two allele-specific primer sets were used to test Chinese Spring and 52 commercial Australian wheat varieties representing a range of low-molecular-weight (LMW) alleles. PCR results indicated that all were positive with one of the primer sets and negative with the other, with the exception of three varieties containing the 1BL/1RS chromosomal translocation that were negative for both. Furthermore, markers GliA1.1, GliB1.1 and GliD1.1 were found to be correlated with Glu-A3 a, b or c, Glu-B3 b, c, d or e and Glu-D3 a, b or e LMW glutenin alleles, respectively. Markers GliA1.2, GliB1.2 and GliD1.2 were found to be correlated with the Glu-A3 d or e, Glu-B3 a, g or h and Glu-D3 c alleles, respectively. These results indicated that the γ-gliadin SNP markers could be used for detecting linked LMW glutenin subunit alleles that are important in determining the quality attributes of wheat products.
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