Chromosome identification and comparative karyotypic analyses of four Pinus species
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Chromosomal landmarks in four Pinus species: P. densiflora, P. thunbergii, P. sylvestris, and P. nigra were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using hapten- or fluorochrome-labeled probes for the plant telomere repeat, centromeric repeat (PCSR), and rDNA. FISH landmarks were located at the interstitial and proximal regions of chromosomes and allowed us to identify nearly all of the homologous chromosomes in each species. A comparative analysis of the FISH karyotypes among the four species showed that the interstitial FISH signals obtained by hybridization with the telomere and rDNA sequences were stable and could be used to identify homologous chromosomes among species. The identification of homologous chromosomes among species facilitated a detailed comparative karyotype analysis. The results suggest that the degree of chromosomal differentiation among the four Pinus species is very low and that the proximal regions vary in their DNA sequences. The similarities and differences among FISH karyotypes are discussed in relation to phylogeny.
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