Species relationships in Fagopyrum revealed by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting
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Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to distinguish between 28 different accessions belonging to 14 species and two sub-species of Fagopyrum. Of the 75 random 10-mer primers tested, only 19 generated robust, easily interpretable amplification products. A total of 364 bands were observed with an average of 19.15 bands per primer, of which 99.45% were polymorphic. Primer OPN-08 produced the maximum number of fragments and UBC-183 produced the minimum number of fragments. The data were utilized to elucidate genetic relationships among 14 species and two sub-species of Fagopyrum. Cluster analysis using the unweighted paired group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) showed four main clusters, two each of the cymosum and urophyllum groups. The results showed that Fagopyrum tataricum is closer to its wild ancestor F. tataricum ssp. potanini Batalin, closely followed by Fagopyrum giganteum. Cultivated common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) showed affinity with its putative wild ancestor F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale and the other closely related diploid species Fagopyrum homotropicum. In the urophyllum group, Fagopyrum macrocarpum and Fagopyrum pleioramosum formed one cluster, whereas Fagopyrum capillatum, Fagopyrum gracilipes and Fagopyrum gilessii clustered separately. Except for a few cases, our results correspond with previously reported studies on Fagopyrum using the isozyme, RFLP and RAPD methods. Species-diagnostic amplification products specific to some species in the cymosum and urophyllum groups were identified. Our results show that RAPDs can be successfully used to analyze species relationships in Fagopyrum and also for constructing linkage maps.
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