Der Urologe, Ausgabe A

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 11–28

Lebensqualität nach radikalchirurgischen urologischen Eingriffen im Becken und die Bedeutung der Rehabilitation

Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität (LQ) wurde mittlerweile zum Dreh- und Angelpunkt der Beurteilung differenter Therapieverfahren bei Blasen- und Prostatakrebs und stellt zunehmend die Grundlage für Therapieentscheidungen sowohl bei Urologen als auch bei Patienten dar. Zum besseren Verständnis stellen wir Entwicklung und Ergebnisse der Lebensqualitätsforschung sowie weiteren Entwicklungsbedarf in einer ausführlichen Literaturübersicht dar.

Die in Deutschland etablierte urologisch-onkologische stationäre Rehabilitation hat seit Jahrzehnten für eine gute postoperative LQ gesorgt, jedoch den Beweis der Wirksamkeit lange vernachlässigt. Durch eine prospektive Studie konnten wir die Wirksamkeit eines 3- bis 4-wöchigen stationären fachspezifischen multimodalen Reha-Verfahrens auf die allgemeine und spezifische LQ sowie das Andauern des Behandlungserfolgs nachweisen, sodass die kurativen Leistungen der heutigen urologischen Chirurgie mit einer rasch erreichten und langfristig stabilen hohen LQ vervollständigt werden können.

Schlüsselwörter

Lebensqualität Radikale Prostatektomie Radikale Zystektomie Stationäre Rehabilitation Outcome 

Quality of life after radical urologic pelvic surgery and impact of inpatient rehabilitation

Abstract

Health-related quality of life (QOL) has become a pivotal criterion for assessing quality of specific therapy for prostate and bladder cancer in urology and serves increasingly as a basis for therapeutic decisions reached by urologists and patients. To aid in comprehension, we present the development of QOL research, the accumulated knowledge, and needs for further investigations by offering a broad review of the literature.

In Germany, established inpatient rehabilitation has dealt with QOL for decades, but proof of efficacy was lacking. We clearly demonstrated in a prospective study the beneficial effects on QOL achieved with a specific modular urologic inpatient rehabilitation program after radical prostatectomy within 3–4 weeks and stability of these effects over time. Inpatient rehabilitation provides the best generic and disease-specific QOL after radical urologic surgery and completes the surgeon’s performance.

Keywords

Health-related quality of life Radical prostatectomy Radical cystectomy Inpatient rehabilitation Outcome 

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Aaronson NK, Ahmedzai S, Bergman B et al. (1993) The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30: A quality of life instrument for use in international clinical trials in oncology. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 365–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Affue T, Krouse R, Chu D et al. (2000) Assessment of gender differences with regard to early and late quality of life (QOL) issues in urologic cancer patients with ileal conduit (IC) urinary diversions. J Urol 163(Suppl 4): 18–29Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ao T, Yokoyama E, Uchida T et al. (1994) Clinical feature and quality of life of urinary diversion patients with bladder cancer. Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 85(4): 616–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aulbert E, Niederle N (Hrsg) (1990) Die Lebensqualität des chronisch Krebskranken. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bacon CG, Giovannucci E, Testa M, Glass TA, Kawachi I (2002) The association of treatment-related symptoms with quality-of-life outcomes for localized prostate carcinoma patients. Cancer 94(3): 862–871CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balderson N, Towell T (2003) The prevalence and predictors of psychological distress in men with prostate cancer who are seeking support. Br J Health Psychol 8(2): 125–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Balster S, Wülfing C (2002) Lebensqualität nach radikaler Zystektomie und Harnableitung. Eine Literaturübersicht: Urologe B 42(2): 97–99Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berges RR, Spiegel T, Senge T (2002) Gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität nach radikaler Prostatektomie und Behandlungszufriedenheit in der Langzeitnachsorge. Urologe B 42(2): 106–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bergner M (1989) Quality of life, health status, and clinical research. Med Care 27: 148–156Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bestmann B, Siebmann J-U, Kurek R, Küchler T (2002) Lebensqualität beim Prostatakarzinom — Erste Ergebnisse einer empirischen Metaanalyse. Urologe B 42: 109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Biermann CW, Herberhold D, Pannek J et al. (1994a) Symptomatologie und Befindlichkeiten von Tumorpatienten in der Urologie — Früh- und Spätergebnisse. Tumor Diag Ther 15: 236–239Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Biermann CW, Herberhold D, Finke W, Mosebach D, de Riese W, Senge T, Küchler T (1994b) Influence of uro-oncological surgery on quality of life. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 120(Suppl): 94Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biermann CW, de Riese W, Herberhold D, Schulze H, Senge T, Küchler T (1995a) Lebensqualität von Tumorpatienten in der urologischen Onkologie. In: Schwarz R, Bernhard J, Flechtner H, Küchler T (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der Onkologie II. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 263–267Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Biermann CW, Schulze H, Küchler T (1995b) Quality of life in urological cancer: Data to develop EORTC-specific tumor modules. Quality Life Res 5: 399Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biermann CW, Herberhold D, Finke W, Schulze H, Senge T, de Riese W, Küchler T (1995c) Quality assurance in tumor surgery — The effect of tumor surgery interventions on the quality of life of patients with urologic tumors. Swiss Surg 6: 285–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Biermann CW, Schmidt CH, Semjonow A, Hertle L, Küchler T (1996a) Quality of life in prostatic cancer: development of an EORTC-specific prostate module. Support Care Cancer 4: 230Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biermann CW, Schmidt CH, Semjonow A, Hertle L, Küchler T (1996b) Quality of life after radical prostatectomy — preliminary results. Psycho Oncol 5(Suppl 3): 13Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Biermann CW (1997) (Hrsg) Derzeitiger Stand und Aspekte der Lebensqualitätsforschung in der urologischen Onkologie. Gründungsveranstaltung der Arbeitsgruppe Lebensqualität der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Urologische Onkologie der Deutschen Krebsgesellschaft Frankfurt am Main, 14. September 1996, Bd 1. In: Biermann CW, Weißbach L (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Biermann CW, Schmidt C, Küchler T (1997) Lebensqualität beim lokalisierten Prostatakarzinom. In: Biermann CW, Weißbach L (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 10–18Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Biermann CW, Küchler T (1999) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Urologe A 38: 189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bjerre BD, Hohansen C, Steven K (1994) Health related quality of life after urinary diversion: Continent diversion with the Kock pouch compared with ileal conduit. A questionnaire study. Scand J Urol Nephrol 157(Suppl): 113–118Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bjerre BD, Johannsen C, Steven K (1995) Health-related quality of life after cystectomy: bladder substitution compared with ileal conduit diversion. Br J Urol 75(2): 200–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Böhle A, Müller-Marienburg K, v. Wietersheim J, Jocham D (1997) Radikale Zystektomie — Wie ist die Lebensqualität der Patienten? In: Biermann CW, Weißbach L (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 52–59Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boini S, Briancon S, Guillemin F, Galan P, Hercberg S (2004) Impact of cancer occurence on health-related quality of life: A longitudinal pre-post assessment. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2: 4–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Botteman MF, Pashos CL, Hauser RS, Laskin BL, Redaelli A (2003) Quality of life aspects of bladder cancer: A review of the literature. Quality Life Res 12: 675–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boyd SD, Feinberg SM, Skinner DG, Lieskovksky G, Baron D, Richardson J (1987) Quality of life survey of urinary diversion patients: Comparison of ileal conduit versus continent Kock ileal reservoirs. J Urol 138(6): 1386–1389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Braslis KG, Santa-Cruz C, Brickman AL, Soloway MS (1995) Quality of life 12 months after radical prostatectomy. Br J Urol 75: 48–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Breul J, Paul R, Niesel T, Hartung R (1997) Einfluß von Komplikationen auf die Lebensqualität nach radikaler Prostatektomie. In: Biermann CW, Weißbach L (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 1–9Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bullinger M, Kirchberger I, Ware J (1995) Der deutsche SF-36 Health Survey. Übersetzung und psychometrische Testung eines krankheitsübergreifenden Instruments zur Erfassung der gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität. Z Gesundheitswis 3: 21–36Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bullinger M, Kirchberger I (1998) SF-36 Fragebogen zum Gesundheitszustand — Handanweisung. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Caffo O, Fellin G, Graffer U, Luciani L (1996) Assessment of quality of life after cystectomy or conservative therapy for patients with infiltrating bladder carcinoma: A survey by a self-administered questionnaire. Cancer 78: 1089–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Calais da Silva F, Reis E, Costa T, Denis L, Members of Quality of Life Committee of the EORTC Genitourinary Group (1993) Quality of Life in patients with prostatic cancer. Cancer 71: 1138–1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Castagnola C, Marechal JM, Hanauer MT, Dawahra M, Dubernard JM (1996) Quality of life and skin urinary diversions. Results of a questionnaire completed by 73 patients. Prog Urol 6(2): 207–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Castiglione M (1990) Meßbarkeit und Beurteilung der Lebensqualität. In: Aulbert, Niederle (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, München, 15–26Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chadwick DJ, Stower MJ (1990) Life with a urostomy. Br J Urol 65: 189–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Clark JA, Inui TS, Silliman RA et al. (2003) Patient’s perceptions of quality of life after treatment for early prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 21(20): 3777–3784CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Conde Redondo C, Estebanez Zarranz J, Rodriguez Tovez A, Amon Sesmero J, Alonso Fernandez D, Martinez Sagarra JM (2001) Quality of life in patients treated with orthotopic bladder substitution versus cutaneous ileostomy. Actas Urol Esp 25(6): 435–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cookson MS, Dutta SC, Chang SS, Clark T, Smith JA jr, Wells N (2003) Health related quality of life in patients treated with radical cystectomy and urinary diversion for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: development and validation of a new disease specific questionnaire. J Urol 170(5): 1926–1930CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cooperberg MR, Master VA, Carroll PR (2003) Single pad urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy (RP): Implications for health-related quality of life (HRQOL). J Urol 169(Suppl 4): 33Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dalkin B (2003) Prospective health related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes using a validated instrument in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. J Urol 169(Suppl 4): 34Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Deliveliotis C, Liakouras C, Delis A, Skolarikkos A, Varkarakis J, Protogerou V (2004) Prostate operations: long-term effects on sexual and urinary function and quality of life. Comparison with an age-matched control population. Urol Res (electronic publication ahead of print, March 31)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Derogatis LR (1994) SCL-90-R. Symptom Checklist-90-R. Administration, scoring and procedures manual 3. National Computer Systems Inc., MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Diefenbach MA, Uzzo RG, Greenberg RE, Dorsey J, Vass C (2003) Decision-making strategies and distress among patients with localized prostate cancer. J Urol 169 (Suppl 4): 449Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dombo O, Menges-Beutel A, Hauge A (1993) Erwartungen, Bedürfnisse und Probleme des Patienten in der stationären Nachsorge. In: Delbrück H, Rübben H (Hrsg) Krebsnachsorge und Rehabilitation, Bd 4: Prostatakarzinom. Zuckschwerdt, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dombo O, Grosemans P, Hoffmann W, Otto U (1997) Rehabilitation der postoperativen Streßinkontinenz beim Mann nach radikaler Prostatektomie und Zystoprostatektomie. Klinik Quellental, SelbstverlagGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dombo O, Hoffmann W, Berger D, Otto U (2002a) Einfluß einer fachspezifischen stationären Rehabilitation auf die Lebensqualität nach radikaler Prostatektomie. Ergebnisse einer Einjahres-Katamnese. Urologe A 41(Suppl 1): 34Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dombo O, Otto U, Berger D, Petermann F (2002b) Effects of a specific multimodal in-care rehabilitation program on quality of life after radical prostatectomy for cancer of the prostate and necessary time of stay. Results after one year follow-up. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 128(Suppl 1): 166Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dombo O, Otto U (2004) Stress-Inkontinenz beim Mann: Anatomische und funktionelle Besonderheiten. J Urol Urogyn 11(1): 7–12Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dutta SC, Chang SC, Coffey CS, Smith JA jr, Jack G, Cookson MS (2002) Health related quality of life assessment after radical cystectomy: comparison of ileal conduit with continent orthotopic neobladder. J Urol 168(1): 164–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Engel GL (1976) The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 196: 129–136Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Esper P, Mo F, Chodak G, Sinner M, Cella D, Pienta KJ (1997) Measuring quality of life in men with prostate cancer using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy prostate instrument. Urology 50: 920–928CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Eton DT, Lepore SJ, Helgeson VS (2001) Early quality of life in patients with localized prostate carcinoma — an examination of treatment-related, demographic, and psychosocial factors. Cancer 92(6): 1451–1459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ficarra V, Righetti R, D’Amico A et al. (2000) General state of health and psychological well-being in patients after surgery for urological malignant neoplasms. Urol Int 65(3): 130–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Filipas D, Egle UT, Budenbender C et al. (1997) Quality of life and health in patients with urinary diversion: A comparison of incontinent versus continent urinary diversion. Eur Urol 32(1): 23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55a.
    Fossâ SD, Reitan JB, Ous S, Kaalhus O (1987) Life with an ileal conduit in cystectomized bladder cancer patients: Expectations and experience. Scand J Urol Nephrol 21: 97–101Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Fossâ SD, Aaronson N, Silva da FC, Denis L, Newling D, Hosbach G, Kaalhus O (1989) Quality of life in patients with muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer and hormone-resistent prostatic cancer. Eur Urol 16: 335–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Fossâ SD, Kaasa S, Calais da Silva F, Suciu S, Hengeveld MW (1992) Quality of life in prostate cancer patients. The Prostate 4(Suppl): 145–148Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Fossâ SD (1997a) Quality of life (QoL) research in urological cancer. The EORTC Genito-Urinary (GU) Group’s experience. In: Biermann CW, Weißbach L (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 120–121Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Fossâ SD, Woehre H, Kurth KH, Hetherington J, Bakke H, Rustad DA, Skanvik R (1997b) Influence of urological morbidity on quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Eur Urol 31(Suppl 3): 3–8Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Fowler FJ, Barry MJ, Lu-Yao G, Wasson J, Roman A, Wennberg J (1995) Effect of radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer on patient quality of life: Results from a Medicare survey. Urology 45(6): 1007–1115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Frohmüller HG, Theiss M, Manseck A, Wirth MP (1995) Survival and quality of life of patients with stage D1 (T1–3 pN1–2 M0) prostate cancer. Radical prostatectomy plus androgen deprivation versus androgen deprivation alone. Eur Urol 27(3): 202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Fujisawa M, Isotani S, Gotoh A, Okada H, Arakawa S, Kamidono S (2000) Health-related quality of life with orthotopic neobladder versus ileal conduit according to the SF-36 survey. Urology 55(6): 862–865CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Furukawa T, Hattori R, Kinukawa T et al. (1998) Long-term results and quality of life of hemi-Kock orthotopic ileal neobladder after radical cystectomy. Hinyokika Kiyo 44(7): 461–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Gerharz EW, Weingartner K, Dopatka T, Kohl UN, Basler HD, Riedmiller HN (1997) Quality of life after cystectomy and urinary diversion: Results of a retrospective interdisciplinary study. J Urol 158(3): 778–785CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Hara I, Miyake H, Hara S et al. (2002) Health-related quality of life after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a comparison of ileal conduit and orthotopic bladder replacement. BJU Int 89(1): 10–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Hardt J, Filipas D, Hohenfellner R, Egle UT (2000) Quality of life in patients with bladder carcinoma after cystectomy: first results of a prospective study. Quality Life Res 9: 1–12Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Hardt J, Petrak F, Filipas D, Egle UT (2004) Adaptation to life after surgical removal of the bladder — an application of graphical Markov models for analysing longitudinal data. Statist Med 23: 649–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Hart SL (1999) Radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: Functional limitations, appraisals, and emotional distress. Dissertation-Abstracts-International, Section B. Sci Eng 48(11-B): 6236Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    Hart S, Skinner EC, Meyerowitz BE, Boyd S, Lieskovsky G, Skinner DG (1999) Quality of life after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in patients with an ileal conduit, cutaneous or urethral kock pouch. J Urol 162(1): 77–81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Hein RA (2004) Harninkontinenz nach radikaler Prostatektomie als Parameter postoperativer Lebensqualität. Medizinische Dissertation, Universität HamburgGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Henderson A, Laing RW, Langley SE (2004) Quality of life following treatment for early prostate cancer: does low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy offer a better outcome? A review. Eur Urol 45(2): 134–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Henningsohn L, Steven K, Kallestrup EB, Steineck G (2002) Distressful symptoms and well-being after radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder substitution compared with a matched control population. J Urol 168(1): 168–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Henningsohn L, Wijkstrom H, Steven K et al. (2003) Relative importance of sources of symptom-induced distress in urinary bladder cancer survivors. Eur Urol 43(6): 651–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Herr WH (1994) Quality of life of incontinent men after radical prostatectomy. J Urol 151: 652–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Hinotsu A, Niimi A, Akaza H, Miyanaga N, Takeshima H, Eremenco S, Cella D (1999) Development of Japanese version of QOL questionnaire for bladder and prostate cancer patients using FACT-Bl and -P: Pilot study. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 26(5): 657–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Hobisch A, Tosun K, Kinzl J, Kemmler G, Bartsch G, Holtl L, Stenzl A (2001) Life after cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder versus ileal conduit urinary diversion. Semin Urol Oncol 19(1): 18–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Hoffmann W, Liedke S, Otto U (2001) Video-endoscopic biofeedback sphincter training for therapy of postoperative urinary inctoninence after radical surgery. ICI, Paris, p 53Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Hoffmann W, Liedke S, Otto U (2002) Das videoendoskopische Biofeedback-Sphinktertraining zur Therapie der postoperativen Harninkontinenz nach radikalchirurgischen Operationen. Extracta Urol 3: 32–33Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Hu JC, Elkin EP, Pasta DJ, Lubeck DP, Kattan MW, Carroll PR, Litwin MS (2003) Predictors of quality of life outcomes after radical prostatectomy: results from CAPSURE. J Urol 169(Suppl 4): 15Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Hunter DJW, McKee M, Black NA, Sanderson CFB (1995) Health status and quality of life of british men with lower urinary tract symptoms: Results from the SF-36. Urology 45: 962–971CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Janssen P, Weißbach L (1978) Zur Psychosomatik behandelter Hodentumor-Patienten. Z Psychosom Med 24(1): 70–86Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    Jonler M, Madsen FA, Rhodes PR, Sall M, Messing EM, Bruskewitz RC (1996) A prospective study of quantification of urinary incontinence and quality of life in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Urology 48(3): 433–440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Karnofsky DA, Abelmann WH, Craver LF et al. (1948) The use of nitrogen mustards in the palliative treatment of carcinoma: Cancer 1: 634–656Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Karnofsky D, Burchenal J (1949) The clinical evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. In: McLeod C (ed) Evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 191–205Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    Kasielke E, Hänsgen KD (1987) Beschwerdenerfassungsbogen (BEB). Psychodiagnostisches Zentrum, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Katz S, Ford A, Moskowitz R, Jacobson B, Jaffe M (1963) The Index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA 185: 914–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Kiebert GM, Cull A (1997) The EORTC approach to the measurement of quality of life. In: Biermann CW, Weißbach L (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 83–91Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    Kitamura H, Miyao N, Yanase M et al. (1999) Quality of life in patients having an ileal conduit, continent reservoir or orthotopic neobladder after cystectomy for bladder carcinoma. Int J Urol 6(8): 393–399CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Kumar V, Toussi H, Marr C, Hough C, Javle P (2004) The benefits of radical prostatectomy beyond cancer control in symptomatic men with prostate cancer. BJU Int 93(4): 507–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Küchler T (1997) Von der Dokumentation der Komplikation zur Messung der Lebensqualität. Ein Ausblick in die Zukunft. In: Biermann CW, Weißbach L (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 136–139Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    Klußmann R, Arnold G, Schewe S (1989) Leben nach einer Urostomieoperation. Urologe A 28: 209–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Krupsky TL, Saigal CS, Litwin MS (2003) Variation in continence and potency by definition. J Urol 169 (Suppl 4): 34–35Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Kulaksizoglu H, Toktas G, Kulaksizoglu IB, Aglamis E, Unluer E (2002) When should quality of life be measured after radical cystectomy? Eur Urol 42(4): 350–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Lee WR, Hall MC, Mc Quellon RP, Case LD, McCullough DL (2001) A prospective quality-of-life study in men with clinically localized prostate carcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51(3): 614–623CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Lev EL, Eller LS, Gejerman GA, Lane P, Owen SV, White M, Nganga N (2004) Quality of life of men treated with brachytherapies for prostate cancer. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2(1): 28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Lilleby W, Fossâ SD, Waehre HR, Olasen DR (1999) Long-term morbidity and quality of life in patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43: 735–743CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Lim AJ, Brandon AH, Fiedler J, Brickmann AL, Boyer CI, Raub WA, Soloway MS (1995) Quality of life: Radical prostatectomy versus radiation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 154: 1420–1425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Litwin MS (1994) Measuring health related quality of life in men with prostate cancer. J Urol 152: 1882–1887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Litwin MS, Hays RD, Fink A, Ganz PA, Leake B, Leach GE, Brook RH (1995a) Quality of life outcome in men treated for localized prostate cancer. JAMA 273: 129–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Litwin MS, Hays RD, Fink A, Ganz PA, Leake B, Brook RH (1998) The UCLA Prostate Cancer Index: development, reliability and validity of a health-related quality of life measure. Med Care 36: 1002–1012CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Litwin MS, Sadetsky N, Pasta DJ, Lubeck DP (2004) Bowel function and bother after treatment for early stage prostate cancer: a longitudinal quality of life analysis from CaPSURE. J Urol 172(2): 515–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lubeck DP, Litwin MS, Henning JM, Carroll PR (1997) Measurement of health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer: the CaPSURE database. Qual Life Res 6(5): 385–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lubeck DP, Sadetsky N, Pasta DJ, Mehta SS, Carroll PR (2003) Quality of life after second treatment for prostate cancer: data from CaPSURE™. J Urol 169(Suppl 4): 34Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mansson A, Johnson G, Mansson W (1988) Quality of life after cystectomy. Comparison between patients with conduit and those with continent caecal reservoir urinary diversion. Br J Urol 62(3): 240–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mansson A, Johnson G, Mansson W (1991) Psychsocial adjustment to cystectomy for bladder carcinoma and effects on interpersonal relationships. Scand J Caring Sci 5(3): 129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mansson A, Colleen S, Hermeren G, Johnson G (1997) Which patients will benefit from psychosocial intervention after cystectomy for bladder cancer? Br J Urol 80(1): 50–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mansson A, Christensson P, Johnson G, Colleen S (1998) Can proeoperative psychological defense mechanism, mood and type of lower urinary tract reconstruction predict psychosocial adjustment after cystectomy in patients with bladder cancer? Br J Urol 82: 348–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mansson A, Mansson W (1999) When the bladder is gone: quality of life following different types of urinary diversion. Word J Urol 17(4): 211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mansson A, Caruso A, Capovilla E, Colleen S, Bassi P, Pagano F, Mansson W (2000) Quality of life after radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder substitution: a comparison between Italian and Swedish men. BJU Int 85(1): 26–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mansson A, Davidsson T, Hunt S, Mansson W (2002) The quality of life in men after radical cystectomy with a continent cutaneous diversion or orthotopic bladder substitution: is there a difference? BJU Int 90(4): 386–390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mansson A, Henningsohn L, Steineck G, Mansson W (2004) Neutral third party versus treating institution for evaluating quality of life after radical cystectomy. Eur Urol 46(2): 195–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    McGuire MS, Grimaldi G, Grotas J, Russo P (2000) The type of urinary diversion after radical cystectomy significantly impacts on the patient’s quality of life. Ann Surg Oncol 7(1): 4–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mehta SS, Lubeck DP, Pasta DJ, Ye J, Carroll PR (2003) Fear of cancer recurrence after treatment for prostate cander: data from CAPSURE™. J Urol 169(Suppl 4): 35Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Miyake H, Nakamura I, Eot H et al. (2002) An evaluation of quality of life in patients who underwent orthotopic bladder replacement after cystectomy: comparison of ileal neobladder versus colon neobladder. Urol Int 69(3): 195–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Miyanaga N, Akaza H, Shinohara N et al. (1999) Assessment of QOL and survival for patients undergoing radical cystectomy or bladder preservation for invasive bladder cancer. Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 90(3): 445–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mücke K, Schlömer-Doll U (1999) Sexualität bei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom. Urologe B 39: 397–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Namiki S, Tochigi T, Kuwahara M et al. (2004) Health related quality of life in Japanese men after redical prostatectomy or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Int J Urol 11(8): 619–627CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nordström GM, Nyman CR (1992) Male and female sexual function and acitivity following ileal conduit urinary diversion. Br J Urol 70: 33–39Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Okada Y, Oishi K, Shichiri Y et al. (1997) Quality of life survey of urinary diversion patients: comparison of continent urinary diversion versus ileal conduit. Int J Urol 4(1): 26–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Otto U (1997) Multimodales Konzept zur postoperativen Rehabilitation. Urol Nachr 8: 12Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Otto U, Grosemans P, Hoffmann W, Dombo O (1998) Rehabilitation in der urologischen Onkologie. Urologe B 38(Suppl 1): 35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Otto U, Grosemans P, Hoffmann W, Liedke S (2000a) Kontinenztraining für Patienten nach Prostatovesikulektomie. ÄP Urol Nephrol 6Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Otto U, Berger D, Krischke NR, Forkel S, Hoffmann W, Petermann F, Klein HO (2000b) How effective is the indication-specific inpatient-rehabilitation of cancer patients after radical prostatectomy? J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 126(Suppl)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Otto U, Berger D, Hoffmann W, Krischke NR, Forkel S (2001) Ist eine pachspezifische Rehabilitation nach radikaler Prostatektomie sinnvoll und effektiv? DRV-Schriften 26: 252Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Otto U, Dombo O, Berger D, Petermann F, Hoffmann W (2002a) Cancer of the prostate: Effects of a specific in-care rehabilitation program after radical prostatectomy and prediction of needed time. Results after one year follow-up. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 128(Suppl 1): 109Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Otto U, Dombo O, Hoffmann W, Berger D, Petermann F (2002b) Stationäre Rehabilitation nach radikaler Prostatektomie — Ergebnisse nach einjähriger Katamnese. Abstractband des 11. Urologischen Winter-Workshops Maria Alm der Klinik für Urologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Hrsg). Clinstud GmbH, AichachGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Otto U, Dombo O (2002c) Studie zur Identifikation von Prädiktoren für die individuelle Rehabilitationsdauer und den langfristigen Rehabilitationserfolg. Patienten mit Prostatacarcinom: In: Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Krebsbekämpfung der Träger der gesetzlichen Kranken- und Rentenversicherung im Lande Nordrhein-Westfalen (Hrsg) Stationäre Rehabilitation bei Mamma-, Magen- und Prostatacarcinom. Roderer, Regensburg, S 85–138Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Penson DF, Feng Z, Kuniyuki A et al. (2003a) General quality of life 2 years following treatment for prostate cancer: What influences outcomes? Results from the prostate cancer outcomes study. J Clin Oncol 21(6): 1147–1154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Penson DF, Litwin MS, Aaronson NK (2003b) Health related quality of life in men with prostate cancer. J Urol 169(5): 1653–1661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Penson DF, Latini DM, Lubeck DP, Wallace KL, Henning JM, Lue TF (2003c) Is quality of life different for men with erectile dysfunction and prostate cancer compared to men with erectile dysfunction due to other causes? Results from the EXCEED database. J Urol 169(Suppl 4): 75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Perez MA, Meyerowitz BE, Lieskovsky G, Skinner DG, Reynolds B, Skinner EC (1997) Quality of life and sexuality following radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer who use or do not use erectile aids. Urology 50(5): 740–746CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Petry H, Berry DL, Spichiger E, Kesselring A, Gasser TC, Sulser T, Kiss A (2004) Responses and experiences after radical prostatectomy: perceptions of married couples in Switzerland. Int J Nurs Stud 41(5): 507–513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Potosky AL, Legler J, Albertsen PC et al. (2000) Health outcomes after prostatectomy or radiotherpy for prostate cancer: results from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 92(19): 1582–1592CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Potosky AL, Knopf D, Clegg LX, Albersen PC, Stanford JL, Hamilton AS (2001) Quality of life outcomes after primary androgen deprivation therapy: results form the postate cancer outcomes study. J Clin Oncol 19: 3750–3757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Potosky AL, Reeve BB, Clegg LX et al. (2002) Quality of life following localized prostate cancer treated initially with androgen deprivation therapy or no therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 94: 430–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Protogerou V, Moschou M, Antoniou N, Varkarakis J, Bamias A, Deliveliotis C (2004) Modified S-pouch neobladder vs ileal conduit and a matched control population: a quality-of-life survey. BJU 94(3): 350–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Rehman J, Ragab MM, Venkatesh R et al. (2004) Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Washington University initial experience and prospective evalutation of quality of life. J Endourol 18(3): 277–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rosetti SR, Terrone C (1996) Quality of life in prostate cancer patients. Eur Urol 30(Suppl 1): 44–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Rossignol G, Léandri P, Gautier JR, Quintens H, Gabay-Torbiero L, Tap G (1991) Radical retropubic prostatectomy: complications and quality of life (429 cases, 1983–1989). Eur Urol 19: 186–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Roth S (1997) Komplikationen nach Zystektomie und Harnbableitung und deren Einfluß auf die Lebensqualität. In: Biermann CW, Weißbach L (Hrsg) Lebensqualität in der urologischen Onkologie. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 19–51Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Roth AJ, Kornblith AB, Batle-Dopel L, Peabody E, Scher HI, Holland JC (1998) Rapid screening for psychologic distress in men with prostate carcinoma: A pilot study. Cancer 82: 1904–1908CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sadetsky N, Lubeck DP, Pasta DJ, Latini D, Mehta SS, Carroll PR (2003) The association between health insurance coverage and quality of life outcomes after radical prostatectomy: Data from CAPSURE™. J Urol 169(Suppl 4): 14Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Schover LR, Evans R, v. Eschenbach AC (1986) Sexual function and female radical cystectomy. J Urol 134: 465–468Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Shrader-Bogen CL, Kjellberg JL, McPherson CP, Murray CL (1997) Quality of life and treatment outcomes: prostate carcinoma patient’s perpectives after prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Cancer 79(10): 1977–1986CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Skinner EC, Perez M, Lieskovsky G, Reynolds B, Skinner DG, Meyerowitz B (1995) Qualitiy of life following radical prostatectomy for carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol A 153: 506Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Skinner EC, Hart S, Skinner DG, Meyerowitz B (1996) Quality of life in patients following radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. J Urol A 155: 626Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Smith JS, Robertson CN, Clipp EC, Iden D, Lipkus IM (2003) Longitudinal assessment of quality of life and disease uncertainty in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and ther spouses/partners. J Urol 169 (Suppl 4): 34Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Spengler A, Kleber R (1981) Radikale Prostatektomie und Sexualität. In: Schorsch E, Spengler A (Hrsg) Zur psychischen und sexuellen Situation von Patienten nach Genitaloperationen. Arbeits- und Ergebnisbericht. Sonderforschungsbereich 115, DFG Teilprojekt BG, S 127–172Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Spengler A, Kleber R (1982) Psychische und sexuelle Situation von Patienten nach radikaler Prostatektomie. Münch Med Wochenschr 124: 221–225Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Spengler A (1988) Psychische und sexuelle Störungen nach Genital-Operationen in der Urologie. Wiener Med Wochenschr 4: 81–85Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sprangers M, Aaronson N (1992) The role of health care providers and significant others in evaluating the quality of life of patients with chronic disease: a review. J Clin Epidemiol 45: 743–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Steginga SK, Occhipinti S, Dunn J, Gardiner RA, Yaxley J, Heathcote P, Yaxley J (2001) The supportive care needs of men with prostate cancer. Psychooncology 10: 66–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Steginga SK, Occhipinti S, Gardiner RA, Yaxley J, Heathcote P (2004) Prospective study of men’s psychological and decision-related adjustment after treatment for localized prostate cancer. Urology 63(4): 751–756CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Steineck G, Helgesen F, Adolfsson J et al. (2002) Quality of life after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting. N Engl J Med 347: 790–796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Stommel M, Given BA, Given CW (2002) Depression and functional status as predictors of death among cancer patients. Cancer 94(10): 2719–2727CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Stone NN, Stock RG (2003) Prospective assessment of patient reported long-term urinary morbidity and asociated quality of life changes after 125 I prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 2(1): 32–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Tsukamoto T, Hirose T, Mikuma N, Sato Y, Yokoo A, Adachi H (1997) Recent progress in surgical management for urogenital cancers — improvement of patient’s QOL following surgery. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi 72(5): 479–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Valdivia Navarro P, Gonzalvo A et al. (1997) Quality of life after radical prostatectomy. Actas Urol Esp 21(9): 903–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Vallorosi CJ, Wie JT, Gerlach M, Wood DP, Montie JE (1999) Gender differences in urinary function after orthotopic neobladder. J Urol 161(Suppl 4): 90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    van Andel G, Visser AP, Zwindermann AH, Hulshof MC, Horenblas S, Kurth KH (2004) A prosptective longitudinal study comparing the impact of external radiation therapy with radical prostatectomy on health related quality of life (HRQOL) in prostate cancer patients. Prostate 58(4): 354–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ware J (1987) Standards for validating health measures: definition and content. J Chronic Dis 40: 473–480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ware JE, Sherbourne CD (1992) The MOS 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 30: 473–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Ware JE (1993) SF-36 Health Survey manual and interpretation guide. The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, BostonGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Weijermann PC, Schurmans JR, Hop WC, Schroder FH, Bosch JL (1998) Morbidity and quality of life in patients with orthotopic and heterotopic continent urinary diversion. Urology 51(1): 51–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Wie JT, Dunn RL, Sandler HM et al. (2002) Comprehensive comparison of health-related quality of life after contemporary therapies for localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 20: 557–566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    World Health Organization (1947) Constitution of the World Health Organization. WHO, GenfGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Yang BK, Young MD, Calingaert B, Albala DM, Vieweg J, Murphy BC, Dahm P (2004) Prospective and longitudinal patient self-assessment of health-related quality of life following radical perineal prostatectomy. J Urol 172(1): 264–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Yarbro CH, Ferrans CE (1998) Quality of life of patients with prostate cancer treated with surgery or radiation therapy. Oncol Nurs Forum 25(4): 685–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Yoshimura K, Arai Y, Ichioka K, Matsui Y, Ogura K, Terai A (2004) A 3-y prospective study of health-related and disease-specific quality of life in patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 7(2): 144–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Yu LC, Kaltreider DL (1987) Stressed nurses: dealing with incontinent patients. J Gerontol Nurs 13: 27PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik QuellentalBad Wildungen-Reinhardshausen
  2. 2.Klinik QuellentalBad Wildungen-Reinhardshausen

Personalised recommendations