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Kognitive Störungen bei Schizophrenie

Cognitive disorders in schizophrenia

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Zusammenfassung

Kognitive Störungen bei Schizophrenie korrelieren hoch mit dem psychosozialen Niveau (soziale Beziehungen, Arbeit, Lebensqualität u. a.) und können bereits bei gesunden Angehörigen sowie bei Hochrisikopersonen (UHR) nachgewiesen werden. Sie verstärken sich parallel mit einem psychotischen Schub und bilden sich dann wieder auf das Ausgangsniveau zurück. Auf psychopathologischer Ebene zeigen Negativsymptome sowie auch das Desorganisationssyndrom die deutlichsten Assoziationen zu kognitiven Defiziten. Der Ausprägungsgrad korreliert mit der Symptomatik. Kognitive Remediation kann mithilfe von Trainings die kognitive Leistung verbessern. Im Hinblick auf die medikamentöse Therapie existiert derzeit noch kein Medikament mit positiver Auswirkung auf die kognitiven Störungen.

Abstract

Cognitive disorders in schizophrenia are highly correlated with the psychosocial level (e.g. relationships, quality of life and work). It has been shown that healthy relatives and people at ultrahigh risk also display cognitive dysfunctions albeit to a lesser degree. The cognitive impairment increases simultaneously with an acute phase and then reverts back to baseline levels. At the psychopathological level, negative symptoms and the disorganization syndrome show the strongest associations with cognitive deficits, whereby the extent of manifestation of deficits increases with increasing symptomatology. Cognitive remediation can improve the cognitive performance through training with small to moderate effects. With respect to drug therapy there is currently no drug with a positive effect on cognitive disorders.

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Author information

Correspondence to Prof. Dr. Axel Krug.

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Interessenkonflikt

A. Krug, F. Stein und T. Kircher geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Für diesen Beitrag wurden von den Autoren keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren durchgeführt. Für die aufgeführten Studien gelten die jeweils dort angegebenen ethischen Richtlinien.

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Krug, A., Stein, F. & Kircher, T. Kognitive Störungen bei Schizophrenie. Nervenarzt 91, 2–9 (2020) doi:10.1007/s00115-019-00809-8

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Psychopathologie
  • Kognitive Remediation
  • Psychosoziales Funktionsniveau
  • Negativsymptome
  • Desorganisationssyndrom

Keywords

  • Psychopathology
  • Cognitive remediation
  • Psychosocial functioning level
  • Negative symptoms
  • Disorganization syndrome