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Der Nervenarzt

, Volume 89, Issue 7, pp 779–783 | Cite as

Stigma – Risikofaktor und Konsequenz suizidalen Verhaltens

Implikationen für die Suizidprävention
  • N. Oexle
  • N. Rüsch
Übersichten

Zusammenfassung

Psychische Erkrankung, vorheriges suizidales Verhalten und der Verlust eines Angehörigen durch Suizid gehören zu den stärksten Risikofaktoren für Suizid. Sowohl psychische Erkrankung als auch Suizidalität selbst sind stigmatisiert, was für Betroffene eine Belastung bedeutet, die zu suizidalen Gedanken und Handlungen beitragen kann. Viele Konsequenzen von Stigma, wie soziale Isolation, verringertes Selbstwertgefühl und Hoffnungslosigkeit, sind als Prädiktoren von Suizidalität bekannt. Maßnahmen zur Stigmareduktion könnten daher eine wichtige Komponente erfolgreicher Suizidprävention sein. Die vorliegende Arbeit erläutert den derzeitigen Forschungsstand zu dieser Hypothese. Eine Vielzahl von Studien bestätigt den Zusammenhang zwischen der Stigmatisierung psychischer Erkrankung und Suizidalität, und erste signifikante Ergebnisse über den Einfluss von Suizidstigma auf Suizidalität liegen vor. Dennoch wurde die Wirksamkeit bestehender Antistigma Interventionen zur Reduktion und Prävention von Suizidalität bisher nicht überprüft. Der Abbau von Stigma in der Allgemeinbevölkerung und unter Behandlern sowie Programme zur Unterstützung von Betroffenen im Umgang mit erlebter Stigmatisierung könnten wichtige Komponenten erfolgreicher Suizidprävention sein.

Schlüsselwörter

Psychische Erkrankung Antistigma Interventionen Suizidalität Stigmabelastung Suizidprävention 

Stigma – risk factor and consequence of suicidal behavior

Implications for suicide prevention

Abstract

Mental illness, previous suicidal behavior and loss of a relative by suicide are strong risk factors for suicidality. Both mental illness and suicide are stigmatized, which is a burden for those affected and potentially contributes to suicidality among stigmatized individuals. Many consequences of stigma, e. g. social isolation, low self-esteem and hopelessness, are well-known predictors of suicidality. Interventions to reduce stigmatization might therefore be an important component of successful suicide prevention. This paper discusses the currently available knowledge regarding this hypothesis. Many studies confirmed the association between the stigmatization of mental illness and suicidality and there is initial evidence for the influence of suicide stigma and suicidality. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of anti-stigma interventions to reduce suicidality and prevent suicide has not yet been tested. Reducing stigma among members of the general population and mental health care professionals as well as programs to support individuals in coping with stigmatization could be important components of successful suicide prevention.

Keywords

Mental disorders Anti-stigma interventions Suicidality Stigma burden Suicide prevention 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

N. Oexle und N. Rüsch geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sektion Public Mental Health, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie IIUniversität Ulm am BKH GünzburgUlmDeutschland

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