Der Nervenarzt

, Volume 83, Issue 11, pp 1448–1457 | Cite as

Stress, psychische Erkrankungen und koronare Herzkrankheit

Übersichten

Zusammenfassung

Es bestehen vielfältige Zusammenhänge zwischen Stress, psychischen Erkrankungen und der koronaren Herzkrankheit (KHK). Akute Stressoren bewirken eine Aktivierung des Hypothalamus-Hypophysen-Nebennierenrinden-Systems und des sympathoadrenalen Systems, chronische Stressoren sind mit längerfristigen funktionellen Änderungen dieser Systeme verbunden. Akute und chronische Stressoren zeigen eine Assoziation mit der Manifestation psychischer Erkrankungen; die beste Evidenz hierfür besteht hinsichtlich der Auslösung depressiver Episoden. Verschiedene psychische Erkrankungen, insbesondere Depression, Angst und Schizophrenie, stellen Risikofaktoren für die Manifestation der KHK dar. Daneben wurden auch akute und/oder chronische Stressoren als Trigger oder Risikofaktoren akuter Koronarsyndrome identifiziert. Therapeutische Anätze zielen auf die Minderung vermehrten Stresserlebens, die Therapie psychischer Erkrankungen sowie auf die Behandlung kardialer Risikofaktoren, die bei Stress und psychischen Erkrankungen gehäuft anzutreffen sind.

Schlüsselwörter

Stress Hypothalamus-Hypophysen-Nebennierenrinden-System Sympathoadrenales System Depression Koronare Herzkrankheit 

Stress, mental disorders and coronary heart disease

Summary

There are numerous associations between stress, mental disorders and coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to an acute stressor leads to activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and sympathoadrenal systems and chronic stressors are associated with sustained functional changes of these systems. Experiencing acute and chronic stress is paralleled by an increased incidence of mental disorders with the most consistent evidence on the triggering of major depressive episodes. Various mental disorders, including depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Furthermore, acute and chronic stressors have been identified as risk factors or triggers of acute coronary syndromes. Thus therapeutic strategies aim at reducing subjective stress experience, therapy of mental disorders and treatment of cardiac risk factors known to be more prevalent in increased stress states and mental disorders.

Keywords

Stress Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system Sympathoadrenal system Depression Coronary artery disease 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt für sich und seinen Koautor an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Zentralinstitut für Seelische GesundheitUniversität Heidelberg, Medizinische Fakultät MannheimMannheimDeutschland
  2. 2.Klinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieCharité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité MitteBerlinDeutschland

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