Der Nervenarzt

, Volume 81, Issue 5, pp 564–576

Behandlung kognitiver Defizite bei Schizophrenie

Teil II: Pharmakologische Strategien
  • D. Roesch-Ely
  • U. Pfueller
  • C. Mundt
  • U. Müller
  • M. Weisbrod
Übersichten

Zusammenfassung

Kognitive Defizite bilden eine klinisch relevante und für den Verlauf entscheidende Symptomgruppe der Schizophrenie. Die pharmakologische Behandlung der kognitiven Defizite stellt eine Herausforderung dar. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, eine theoretisch fundierte und klinisch bedeutungsvolle Übersicht über die pharmakologischen Strategien der Behandlung kognitiver Defizite bei schizophrenen Psychosen zu geben. Die für die Behandlung schizophrener Psychosen zugelassenen Antipsychotika der 1. Generation sind hinsichtlich ihrer Wirkung auf die Kognition noch kontrovers. Die Antipsychotika der 2. Generation zeigen einen allenfalls geringen positiven Einfluss und sind denen der 1. Generation nicht nachweisbar überlegen. Vielversprechend erscheint der gezielte Einsatz von Präparaten, die kognitive Prozesse spezifisch beeinflussen können, so genannte kognitionsverbessernde Substanzen („cognition-enhancing drugs“).

Schlüsselwörter

Kognitionsverbessernde Substanzen Kognition Schizophrenie Psychopharmaka Behandlung 

Treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia

Part 2: Pharmacological strategies

Summary

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are a clinically relevant symptom dimension and one of the best predictors for functional outcome. Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is still a challenge. The objective of this article is to present a detailed review of the literature on strategies for the pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits. It is not clear whether first-generation antipsychotics have a genuine positive influence on cognition. There is only sparse evidence for the positive effect of second-generation antipsychotics on cognitive processes. Furthermore it is not evident that second-generation antipsychotics are more beneficial than first-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of cognitive deficits. The add-on use of substances which directly influence cognitive processes, so-called cognition-enhancing drugs is more promising.

Keywords

Cognition-enhancing drugs Cognition Schizophrenia Psychopharmacology Treatment 

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Allain H, Lieury A, Brunet-Bourgin F et al (1992) Antidepressants and cognition: comparative effects of moclobemide, viloxazine and maprotiline. Psychopharmacology 106 [Suppl]:56–61Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Apud JA, Mattay V, Chen J et al (2007) Tolcapone improves cognition and cortical information processing in normal human subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1011–1020CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apud JA, Weinberger DR (2007) Treatment of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia: potential role of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors. CNS Drugs 21:535–557CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arnsten AF, Cai JX, Murphy BL et al (1994) Dopamine D1 receptor mechanisms in the cognitive performance of young adult and aged monkeys. Psychopharmacology 116:143–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arnsten AF, Goldman-Rakic PS (1985) Alpha 2-adrenergic mechanisms in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive decline in aged nonhuman primates. Science 230:1273–1276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arnsten AF, Jentsch JD (1997) The alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, cirazoline, impairs spatial working memory performance in aged monkeys. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 58:55–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barch DM, Carter CS (2005) Amphetamine improves cognitive function in medicated individuals with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. Schizophr Res 77:43–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barnett JH, Croudace TJ, Jaycock S et al (2007) Improvement and decline of cognitive function in schizophrenia over one year: a longitudinal investigation using latent growth modelling. BMC Psychiatry 7:16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blyler CR, Gold JM (2000) Cognitive Effects of typical antipsychotic treatment: another look. In: Sharma T, Harvey PD (eds) Cognition in Schizophrenia: Impairments, Importance and Treatment Strategies. Oxford Univ Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bucci L (1987) The negative symptoms of schizophrenia and the monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Psychopharmacology 91:104–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buchanan RW, Conley RR, Dickinson D et al (2008) Galantamine for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 165:82–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carpenter WT, Gold JM (2002) Another view of therapy for cognition in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 51:969–971CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chamberlain SR, Muller U, Blackwell AD et al (2006) Noradrenergic modulation of working memory and emotional memory in humans. Psychopharmacology 188:397–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cooper NJ, Keage H, Hermens D et al (2005) The dose-dependent effect of methylphenidate on performance, cognition and psychophysiology. J Integr Neurosci 4:123–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coyle JT, Tsai G (2004) The NMDA receptor glycine modulatory site: a therapeutic target for improving cognition and reducing negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 174:32–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Daniel E, Weinberger D, Goldberg T et al (1991) Effect of amphetamine on regional blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia. J Neurosci 11:1907–1917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Davidson M, Galderisi S, Weiser M et al (2009) Cognitive effects of antipsychotic drugs in first-episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder: a randomized, open-label clinical trial (EUFEST). Am J Psychiatry 166:675–682CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Davidson M, Harvey P, Bergamn R (1990) Effects of the D1 agonist SKF-39393 combined with haloperidol in schizophrenic patients (letter). Arch Gen Psychiatry 47:190–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Delle Chiaie R, Salviati M, Fiorentini S et al (2007) Add-on mirtazapine enhances effects on cognition in schizophrenic patients under stabilized treatment with clozapine. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:563–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Doruk A, Uzun O, Ozsahin A (2008) A placebo-controlled study of extract of ginkgo biloba added to clozapine in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 23:223–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elie D, Poirier M, Chianetta J et al (2009) Cognitive effects of antipsychotic dosage and polypharmacy: a study with the BACS in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. J PsychopharmacolGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferreri F, Agbokou C, Gauthier S (2006) Cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia: potential benefits of cholinesterase inhibitor adjunctive therapy. J Psychiatry Neurosci 31:369–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fletcher PC, Frith CD, Grasby PM et al (1996) Local and distributed effects of apomorphine on fronto-temporal function in acute unmedicated schizophrenia. J Neurosci 16:7055–7062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Freedman R, Olincy A, Buchanan RW et al (2008) Initial phase 2 trial of a nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 165:1040–1047CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Friedman JI (2004) Cholinergic targets for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia: focus on cholinesterase inhibitors and muscarinic agonists. Psychopharmacology 174:45–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Friedman JI, Adler DN, Temporini HD et al (2001) Guanfacine treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:402–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Friedman JI, Carpenter D, Lu J et al (2008) A pilot study of adjunctive atomoxetine treatment to second-generation antipsychotics for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 28:59–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Friedman JI, Ocampo R, Elbaz Z et al (2005) The effect of citalopram adjunctive treatment added to atypical antipsychotic medications for cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 25:237–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Frith CD, Mcginty MA, Gergel I et al (1989) The effects of scopolamine and clonidine upon the performance and learning of a motor skill. Psychopharmacology 98:120–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ghoneim MM, Block RI, Ping ST et al (1993) The interactions of midazolam and flumazenil on human memory and cognition. Anesthesiology 79:1183–1192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goff D C, Cather C, Gottlieb J D et al. (2008) Once-weekly d-cycloserine effects on negative symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia: An exploratory study. Schizophr Res 106(2–3):320–327Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goff DC, Tsai G, Levitt J et al (1999) A placebo-controlled trial of D-cycloserine added to conventional neuroleptics in patients with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:21–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goff DC, Lamberti JS, Leon AC et al (2008) A placebo-controlled add-on trial of the Ampakine, CX516, for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:465–472CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goldberg TE, Bigelow LB, Weinberger DR et al (1991) Cognitive and behavioral effects of the coadministration of dextroamphetamine and haloperidol in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 148:78–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goldberg TE, Goldman RS, Burdick KE et al (2007) Cognitive improvement after treatment with second-generation antipsychotic medications in first-episode schizophrenia: is it a practice effect? Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1115–1122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR (1996) Effects of neuroleptic medications on the cognition of patients with schizophrenia: a review of recent studies. J Clin Psychiatry 57 [Suppl 9]:62–65Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grasby PM, Frith CD, Paulesu E et al (1995) The effect of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine on regional cerebral blood flow during the performance of a memory task. Exp Brain Res 104:337–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Green MF, Kern RS, Heaton RK (2004) Longitudinal studies of cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: implications for MATRICS. Schizophr Res 72:41–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Green MF, Marder SR, Glynn S M et al (2002) The neurocognitive effects of low-dose haloperidol: a two-year comparison with risperidone. Biol Psychiatry 51:972–978CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Green MF, Marshall JBD, Wirshing WC et al (1997) Does Risperdone improve verbal working memory in treatment-resistant schizophrenia? Am J Psychiatry 154:799–803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hagger C, Buckley P, Kenny JT et al (1993) Improvement in cognitive functions and psychiatric symptoms in treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine. Biol Psychiatry 34:702–712CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hall H, Sedvall G, Magnusson O et al (1994) Distribution of D1- and D2-dopamine receptors, and dopamine and its metabolites in the human brain. Neuropsychopharmacology 11:245–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Harvey JA (2003) Role of the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor in learning. Learn Mem 10:355–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hashimoto T, Volk DW, Eggan SM et al (2003) Gene expression deficits in a subclass of GABA neurons in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. J Neurosci 23:6315–6326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M et al (1996) Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of glycine adjuvant therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 169:610–617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hirst WD, Stean TO, Rogers DC et al (2006) SB-399885 is a potent, selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist with cognitive enhancing properties in aged rat water maze and novel object recognition models. Eur J Pharmacol 553:109–119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hunter MD, Ganesan V, Wilkinson ID et al (2006) Impact of modafinil on prefrontal executive function in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 163:2184–2186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Javitt DC (2007) Glutamate and schizophrenia: phencyclidine, n-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, and dopamine-glutamate interactions. Int Rev Neurobiol 78:69–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jones PB, Barnes TR, Davies L et al (2006) Randomized controlled trial of the effect on Quality of Life of second- vs first-generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study (CUtLASS 1). Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:1079–1087CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keefe RS, Bilder RM, Davis SM et al (2007) Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE Trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:633–647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Keefe RS, Silva SG, Perkins DO et al (1999) The effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull 25:201–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kern RS, Glynn SM, Horan WP et al (2009) Psychosocial treatments to promote functional recovery in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 35:347–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Knoflach F, Mutel V, Jolidon S et al (2001) Positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate 1 receptor: characterization, mechanism of action, and binding site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:13402–13407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Koike K, Hashimoto K, Takai N et al (2005) Tropisetron improves deficits in auditory P50 suppression in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 76:67–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Krystal JH, Karper LP, Bennett A et al (1998) Interactive effects of subanesthetic ketamine and subhypnotic lorazepam in humans. Psychopharmacology 135:213–229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Krystal JH, Karper LP, Seibyl JP et al (1994) Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Psychotomimetic, perceptual, cognitive, and neuroendocrine responses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:199–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lewis DA, Cho RY, Carter CS et al (2008) Subunit-selective modulation of GABA Type A receptor neurotransmission and cognition in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 165(12):1585–1593CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lucas PB, Pickar D, Kelsoe J et al (1990) Effects of the acute administration of caffeine in patients with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 28:35–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Medalia A, Gold J, Merriam A (1988) The effects of neuroleptics on neuropsychological test results of schizophrenics. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 3:249–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Meltzer HY, Mcgurk SR (1999) The effects of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 25:233–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Meltzer HY, Sumiyoshi T (2008) Does stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors improve cognition in schizophrenia? Behav Brain Res 195:98–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Menzies L, Ooi C, Kamath S et al (2007) Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulating drugs on working memory and brain function in patients with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:156–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Minzenberg MJ, Carter CS (2008) Modafinil: a review of neurochemical actions and effects on cognition. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1477–1502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mishara AL, Goldberg TE (2004) A meta-analysis and critical review of the effects of conventional neuroleptic treatment on cognition in schizophrenia: opening a closed book. Biol Psychiatry 55:1013–1022CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Morein-Zamir S, Turner DC, Sahakian BJ (2007) A review of the effects of modafinil on cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 33:1298–1306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Morgan CJ, Curran HV (2008) Effects of cannabidiol on schizophrenia-like symptoms in people who use cannabis. Br J Psychiatry 192:306–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Müller U, Becker T (2008) Kognition und Rehabilitation. In: Kircher T, Gauggel S (eds) Neuropsychologie der Schizophrenie: Symptome, Kognition, Gehirn. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Müller U, Mottweiler E, Bublak P (2005) Noradrenergic blockade and numeric working memory in humans. J Psychopharmacol 19:21–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Müller U, Steffenhagen N, Regenthal R et al (2004) Effects of modafinil on working memory processes in humans. Psychopharmacology 177:161–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Müller U, Yves D, Pollman S (1998) D1-Versus D2-receptor modulation of visualspatial working memory in humans. J Neurosci 18:2720–2728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Noorbala AA, Akhondzadeh S, Davari-Ashtiani R et al (1999) Piracetam in the treatment of schizophrenia: implications for the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. J Clin Pharm Ther 24:369–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    O’Neill MJ, Bleakman D, Zimmerman DM et al (2004) AMPA receptor potentiators for the treatment of CNS disorders. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 3:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Poyurovsky M, Koren D, Gonopolsky I et al (2003) Effect of the 5-HT2 antagonist mianserin on cognitive dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia patients: an add-on, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13:123–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Purdon SE, Woodward N, Lindborg SR et al (2003) Procedural learning in schizophrenia after 6 months of double-blind treatment with olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol. Psychopharmacology 169:390–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Raedler TJ, Jahn H, Arlt J et al (2004) Adjunctive use of reboxetine in schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry 19:366–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rockstroh S, Emre M, Tarral A et al (1996) Effects of the novel NMDA-receptor antagonist SDZ EAA 494 on memory and attention in humans. Psychopharmacology 124:261–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Roesch-Ely D, Gohring K, Gruschka P et al (2006) Pergolide as adjuvant therapy to amisulpride in the treatment of negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry 39:115–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Roesch-Ely D, Scheffel H, Weiland S et al (2005) Differential dopaminergic modulation of executive control in healthy subjects. Psychopharmacology 178:420–430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Roesch-Ely D, Weiland S, Scheffel H et al (2006) Dopaminergic modulation of semantic priming in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry 60:604–611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Roth BL, Hanizavareh SM, Blum AE (2004) Serotonin receptors represent highly favorable molecular targets for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia and other disorders. Psychopharmacology 174:17–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sacco KA, Creeden C, Reutenauer EL et al (2008) Effects of atomoxetine on cognitive function and cigarette smoking in schizophrenia. Schizophr ResGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sawaguchi T, Goldman-Rakic PS (1991) D1 dopamine receptors in prefrontal cortex: involvement in working memory. Science 251:947–950CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Saykin AJ, Gur RC, Gur RE et al (1991) Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. Selective impairment in memory and learning. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:618–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sevy S, Rosenthal MH, Alvir J et al (2005) Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of modafinil for fatigue and cognition in schizophrenia patients treated with psychotropic medications. J Clin Psychiatry 66:839–843CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shekhar A, Potter WZ, Lightfoot J et al (2008) Selective muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline as a novel treatment approach for schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 165:1033–1039CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Siepmann M, Muck-Weymann M, Joraschky P et al (2001) The effects of reboxetine on autonomic and cognitive functions in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 157:202–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Smith RC, Warner-Cohen J, Matute M et al (2006) Effects of nicotine nasal spray on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 31:637–643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Spence SA, Green RD, Wilkinson ID et al (2005) Modafinil modulates anterior cingulate function in chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 187:55–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Spring B, Gelenberg AJ, Garvin R et al (1992) Amitriptyline, clovoxamine and cognitive function: a placebo-controlled comparison in depressed outpatients. Psychopharmacology 108:327–332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Strassnig M, Brar JS, Ganguli R (2006) Increased caffeine and nicotine consumption in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 86:269–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Strauss ME, Reynolds KS, Jayaram G et al (1990) Effects of anticholinergic medication on memory in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 3:127–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sumiyoshi T, Matsui M, Nohara S et al (2001) Enhancement of cognitive performance in schizophrenia by addition of tandospirone to neuroleptic treatment. Am J Psychiatry 158:1722–1725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sumiyoshi T, Park S, Jayathilake K et al (2007) Effect of buspirone, a serotonin1A partial agonist, on cognitive function in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Schizophr Res 95:158–168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Szeszko PR, Bilder RM, Dunlop JA et al (1999) Longitudinal assessment of methylphenidate effects on oral word production and symptoms in first-episode schizophrenia at acute and stabilized phases. Biol Psychiatry 45:680–686CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tamminga CA (2006) The neurobiology of cognition in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 67:e11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Thiel CM (2003) Cholinergic modulation of learning and memory in the human brain as detected with functional neuroimaging. Neurobiol Learn Mem 80:234–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Turner DC, Clark L, Pomarol-Clotet E et al (2004) Modafinil improves cognition and attentional set shifting in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1363–1373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Turner DC, Robbins TW, Clark L et al (2003) Cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 165:260–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Voss B, Thienel R, Leucht S et al (2008) Therapy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. A systematic overview. Nervenarzt 79:47–48, 50–42, 54–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wagner M, Quednow BB, Westheide J et al (2005) Cognitive improvement in schizophrenic patients does not require a serotonergic mechanism: randomized controlled trial of olanzapine vs amisulpride. Neuropsychopharmacology 30:381–390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Weickert TW, Goldberg TE, Marenco S et al (2003) Comparison of cognitive performances during a placebo period and an atypical antipsychotic treatment period in schizophrenia: critical examination of confounds. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1491–1500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wingen M, Kuypers KP, Ramaekers JG (2007) Selective verbal and spatial memory impairment after 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor blockade in healthy volunteers pre-treated with an SSRI. J Psychopharmacol 21:477–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wittorf A, Sickinger S, Wiedemann G et al (2008) Neurocognitive effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: a naturalistic 6-month follow-up study. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 23:271–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Woodward ND, Purdon SE, Meltzer HY et al (2007) A meta-analysis of cognitive change with haloperidol in clinical trials of atypical antipsychotics: dose effects and comparison to practice effects. Schizophr Res 89:211–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Woodward ND, Purdon SE, Meltzer HY et al (2005) A meta-analysis of neuropsychological change to clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 8:457–472CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Roesch-Ely
    • 1
  • U. Pfueller
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Mundt
    • 1
  • U. Müller
    • 3
  • M. Weisbrod
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Klinik für allgemeine Psychiatrie, Zentrum für Psychosoziale MedizinUniversitätsklinikum HeidelbergHeidelbergDeutschland
  2. 2.Klinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieSRH Klinikum Karlsbad-LangensteinbachKarlsbad-LangensteinbachDeutschland
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s HospitalCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations