Der Nervenarzt

, Volume 81, Issue 1, pp 66–74 | Cite as

Möglichkeiten und Grenzen des pharmakologischen Neuroenhancements

Übersichten

Zusammenfassung

Pharmakologisches Neuroenhancement ist der Versuch, die kognitive Leistungsfähigkeit bei Gesunden zu verbessern. Durch eine gezielte Beeinflussung plastischer Vorgänge im Gehirn sollen dabei Lernen und Gedächtnis, Aufmerksamkeit und Vigilanz oder Stimmung und Kommunikationsfähigkeit optimiert werden. Anhand einer Übersicht über die aktuellen Möglichkeiten solcher Optimierungen wird erstens dargelegt, dass Fragen nach Nebenwirkungen und Wirksamkeit in vielen Fällen bisher nicht verlässlich beantwortet werden können. Zweitens wird argumentiert, dass sich pharmakologische Eingriffe ins Gehirn aus ethischer Sicht von sozial vermittelten Formen der Verbesserung geistiger Leistungen unterscheiden. Pharmakologisches Enhancement vermittelt ein Bild von Effizienz und Kontrolle, das die Gefahr birgt, dass wichtige Aspekte dessen, was wir unter allgemein unter geistiger Leistung verstehen, vernachlässigt werden.

Schlüsselwörter

Neuroenhancement Plastizität Lernen Kognition Ethik 

Options, limits and ethics of pharmacological neuroenhancement

Summary

Pharmacological neuroenhancement is an attempt to increase cognitive performance in healthy humans. Learning and memory, attention and vigilance or mood and social interaction are targeted by a modulation of brain plasticity. Firstly, an analysis of the current state of research shows that, until now, clinical trials of neuroenhancing drugs have demonstrated only limited efficacy and long-term side effects remain largely unexplored. Secondly, we argue that, from an ethical perspective, neuroenhancement differs from socially mediated methods of learning. Pharmacological neuroenhancement is based on notions of efficacy and control that threaten to undermine other important aspects of mental capacities.

Keywords

Neuroenhancers Plasticity Learning Cognition Ethics 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt an, dass keine Interessenkonflikte bestehen.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Abteilung Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieUniversitätsklinikumFreiburgDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut für Ethik und Geschichte der MedizinAlbert-Ludwigs-UniversitätFreiburgDeutschland

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