Der Nervenarzt

, Volume 77, Issue 8, pp 931–939 | Cite as

Das olfaktorische System des Menschen

Anatomie und Physiologie

Zusammenfassung

Der Geruchssinn gehört zu den phylogenetisch ältesten Sinnen des Menschen. Es gibt, vor allem im Vergleich zu den übrigen Sinnessystemen, aber nur wenige Untersuchungen zu seiner Anatomie und Funktion. In den letzten Jahren gelangen jedoch enorme Fortschritte im Verständnis der Teilvorgänge des Riechvorganges: vom ersten Kontakt der Duftstoffe mit den Rezeptorzellen der Nasenschleimhaut über die olfaktorische Signalkaskade bis hin zur zentralnervösen Verarbeitung von olfaktorischen Reizen. Der vorliegende Artikel gibt einen Überblick über diese Prozesse. Er beschäftigt sich mit der Anatomie und Physiologie des Geruchssystems des Menschen, das hauptsächlich Wahrnehmungen aus zwei neuronalen Systemen – dem olfaktorischen und dem trigeminalen System – integriert. Es werden sowohl aktuelle molekularbiologische Untersuchungen als auch funktionelle bildgebende Studien am Menschen berücksichtigt.

Schlüsselwörter

Chemische Sinne Olfaktion Riechen Nase Olfaktorische Rezeptoren 

The human olfactory system

Anatomy and physiology

Summary

The sense of smell is one of the phylogenetically oldest human senses. Nevertheless the number of publications regarding olfaction is marginal compared with other sensory systems. In recent years, however, there have been enormous advances in understanding the main olfactory processes. These range from the first contact of odorants with receptor cells in the nasal mucosa to the olfactory signal cascade to the processing of olfactory stimuli in the central nervous system. This article focuses on anatomy and physiology of the human sense of smell, which consists mostly of sensory input from two neural systems – the olfactory and trigeminal systems. It considers recent biomolecular experiments and functional neuroimaging studies in humans.

Keywords

Chemical senses Olfaction Smell Nose Olfactory receptors 

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Ache BW, Young JM (2005) Olfaction: diverse species, conserved principles. Neuron 48:417–430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amoore JE (1991) Specific anosmias. In: Getchell TV, Doty RL, Bartoshuk LM et al. (eds) Smell and taste in health and disease. Raven Press, New York, S 655–664Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Asan E (2004) Geruchssystem. In: Benninghoff A, Drenckhahn D (Hrsg) Anatomie Band 2. Elsevier, München, S 746–760Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beites CL, Kawauchi S, Crocker CE et al. (2005) Identification and molecular regulation of neural stem cells in the olfactory epithelium. Exp Cell Res 306:309–316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2002) Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman, New York, S 989Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buck L, Axel R (1991) A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell 65:175–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cleland TA, Linster C (2003) Central olfactory structures. In: Doty RL (ed) Handbook of olfaction and gustation. Marcel Dekker, New York, S 165–180Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deibler KD, Acree TE, Lavin EH (1998) Aroma analysis of coffee brew by gas chromatography-olfactometry. In: Contis ET, Ho CT, Mussinan CJ et al. (eds) Food flavors: formation, analysis and packaging influences. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, S 69–78Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Firestein S (2001) How the olfactory system makes sense of scents. Nature 413:211–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gilad Y, Man O, Paabo S et al. (2003) Human specific loss of olfactory receptor genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:3324–3327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gilad Y, Wiebe V, Przeworski M et al. (2004) Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates. PLoS Biol 2:E5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Godfrey PA, Malnic B, Buck LB (2004) The mouse olfactory receptor gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:2156–2161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hahn I, Scherer PW, Mozell MM (1993) Velocity profiles measured for airflow through a large-scale model of the human nasal cavity. J Appl Physiol 75:2273–2287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hatt H (1991) Geruch und Geschmack. In: Hierholzer K, Schmidt RF (Hrsg) Pathophysiologie des Menschen. Medizin, VCH, Weinheim, S 33.1–33.9Google Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Kobal G, Hummel C (1988) Cerebral chemosensory evoked potentials elicited by chemical stimulation of the human olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosa. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 71:241–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin W, Arellano J, Slotnick B et al. (2004) Odors detected by mice deficient in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit A2 stimulate the main olfactory system. J Neurosci 24:3703–3710CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Malnic B, Godfrey PA, Buck LB (2004) The human olfactory receptor gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:2584–2589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Malnic B, Hirono J, Sato T et al. (1999) Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. Cell 96:713–723CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Menashe I, Man O, Lancet D et al. (2003) Different noses for different people. Nat Genet 34:143–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mombaerts P (2004) Odorant receptor gene choice in olfactory sensory neurons: the one receptor-one neuron hypothesis revisited. Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:31–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mombaerts P, Wang F, Dulac C et al. (1996) Visualizing an olfactory sensory map. Cell 87:675–686CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mori K (2003) Grouping of odorant receptors: odour maps in the mammalian olfactory bulb. Biochem Soc Trans 31(Pt 1):134–136Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ngai J, Chess A, Dowling MM et al. (1993) Coding of olfactory information: topography of odorant receptor expression in the catfish olfactory epithelium. Cell 72:667–680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nieuwenhuys R, Voogd J, van Huijzen CH (1988) The Human Central Nervous System: A Synopsis and Atlas. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 301Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Niimura Y, Nei M (2005) Evolutionary changes of the number of olfactory receptor genes in the human and mouse lineages. Gene 346:23–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Price JL (1990) Olfactory system. In: Paxinos G (ed) The human nervous system. Academic Press, New York, S 979–998Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reiter ER, DiNardo LJ, Costanzo RM (2004) Effects of head injury on olfaction and taste. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 37:1167–1184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ressler KJ, Sullivan SL, Buck LB (1993) A zonal organization of odorant receptor gene expression in the olfactory epithelium. Cell 73:597–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Royet JP, Souchier C, Jourdan F et al. (1988) Morphometric study of the glomerular population in the mouse olfactory bulb: numerical density and size distribution along the rostrocaudal axis. J Comp Neurol 270:559–568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sbarbati A, Osculati F (2005) The taste cell-related diffuse chemosensory system. Prog Neurobiol 75:295–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sobel N, Prabhakaran V, Hartley CA et al. (1998) Odorant-induced and sniff-induced activation in the cerebellum of the human. J Neurosci 18:8990–9001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Spehr M, Gisselmann G, Poplawski A et al. (2003) Identification of a testicular odorant receptor mediating human sperm chemotaxis. Science 299:2054–2058CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stern K, McClintock MK (1998) Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones. Nature 392:177–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Takagi SF (1984) The olfactory nervous system of the old world monkey. Jpn J Physiol 34:561–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tegoni M, Pelosi P, Vincent F et al. (2000) Mammalian odorant binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1482:229–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thürauf N, Gjuric M, Kobal G et al. (1996) Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in identified human olfactory receptor neurons. Eur J Neurosci 8:2080–2089CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vassar R, Ngai J, Axel R (1993) Spatial segregation of odorant receptor expression in the mammalian olfactory epithelium. Cell 74:309–318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Volz A, Ehlers A, Younger R et al. (2003) Complex transcription and splicing of odorant receptor genes. J Biol Chem 278:19691–19701CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Weismann M, Yousry I, Heuberger E et al. (2001) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human olfaction. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 11:237–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wiesmann M, Kettenmann B, Kobal G (2004) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human olfaction. In: Taylor AJ, Roberts DD (eds) Flavor perception. Blackwell, Oxford, S  203–227Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zou Z, Horowitz LF, Montmayeur JP et al. (2001) Genetic tracing reveals a stereotyped sensory map in the olfactory cortex. Nature 414:173–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zou Z, Li F, Buck LB (2005) Odor maps in the olfactory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:7724–7729CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Abteilung für NeuroradiologieLudwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMünchen

Personalised recommendations