Der Nervenarzt

, Volume 76, Issue 7, pp 839–848 | Cite as

Temperament und Charakter bei Personen mit Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung

Originalien

Zusammenfassung

Hohe Komorbidität, Suizidalität, ein problematisches Temperament und affektive Dysregulation sind spezifische Merkmale von Personen mit Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung (BPS). Allerdings gibt es bisher kaum Untersuchungen an Allgemeinstichproben, und es bleibt unklar inwieweit diese Merkmale spezifisch für Personen mit BPS sind. Aus diesem Grund untersuchten wir 478 Personen aus einer Bevölkerungsstichprobe in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, wobei 40 Probanden eine Borderline-Persönlichkeit gemäß SKID-II-Selbstrating aufwiesen. Alle Studienteilnehmer wurden mittels halbstrukturierter Interviews und verschiedenen Fragebögen in ihren Haushalten befragt. Um unsere Ergebnisse für Komorbidität kontrollieren zu können, wurden 4 Kontrollgruppen mit unterschiedlichen psychischen Störungen und eine Kontrollgruppe ohne psychische Diagnosen gebildet. Personen mit BPS weisen eine hohe Komorbidität vor allem mit affektiven, Angst- und Alkoholstörungen auf. Drei von 4 Personen mit BPS berichteten zumindest ab und zu Todeswünsche zu haben, und 1/3 hatten schon einmal einen Suizidversuch unternommen. Bezüglich Temperament und Charakter fanden wir ein höheres Neugierverhalten bei BPS im Vergleich zu Personen ohne BPS, wobei dies überwiegend auf die männlichen Studienteilnehmer zurückzuführen war, während weibliche Personen mit BPS eine hohe Schadensvermeidung aufwiesen. Konsistent gegenüber allen Kontrollgruppen fanden wir eine niedrige Selbstlenkungsfähigkeit, unabhängig vom Geschlecht, in der BPS-Gruppe. Unsere Ergebnisse sprechen für eine Berücksichtigung von Komorbidität, Suizidalität und Defiziten in der Selbstlenkungsfähigkeit bei der Behandlung der BPS.

Schlüsselwörter

BPS Temperament Charakter Suizidalität Komorbidität 

Temperament and character in persons with borderline personality disorder

Summary

High comorbidity, suicidal ideation, difficult temperament, and character are key symptoms of persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We investigated 478 persons, 40 of whom had a BPD according SCID-II, self-rating. Participants were examined with a semistructured interview and several self-rating questionnaires in their households. Taking the high comorbidity of persons with BPD into account, we compared the BPD group with four control groups with different axis 1 or personality disorders and one nonclinical group. Persons with BPD showed high comorbidity with affective, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders. With respect to suicidality, 75% reported that they wish to be dead at least sometimes, and about one-third said that they had already attempted suicide. Regarding temperament and character dimensions, our analyses revealed higher novelty seeking for persons with BPD compared to participants without BPD, although this difference was primarily attributable to males with BPD. Additionally, participants with BPD reported higher harm avoidance compared to control groups, while this was more distinctive for females. Finally, we found that persons with BPD had very low levels of self-directedness. This effect was independent from gender and was found in all group comparisons. Therapy of BPD should take into account high comorbidity and suicidality of patients. Moreover, our results show that low self-directedness seems to be specific for persons with BPD. Therefore, therapy must address those deficits by focusing on skills training as well as on aspects of maturation.

Keywords

BPD Temperament Character Suicidality Comorbidity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Barnow
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Rüge
    • 1
  • C. Spitzer
    • 1
  • H.-J. Freyberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieErnst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald im Klinikum Stralsund
  2. 2.Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieErnst-Moritz-Arndt-UniversitätStralsundDeutschland

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