Advertisement

The Science of Nature

, 106:57 | Cite as

Spatiotemporal niche partitioning in a specious silphid community (Coleoptera: Silphidae Nicrophorus)

  • Maranda L. Keller
  • Daniel R. Howard
  • Carrie L. HallEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Resource niche partitioning mediates the coexistence of similar species by reducing the chance of competitive encounters. For co-occurring species that share an ephemeral resource, contrasting activity in space and time may facilitate their persistence. Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) depend entirely on small vertebrate carcasses to reproduce. Given the unpredictability of this resource, and its value to congeners and other scavenger species, burying beetles likely endure intense competition to secure a carcass. Here, contrasting spatial and temporal niche patterns are explored as resource allocation strategies among five sympatric species of burying beetles (N. americanus, N. marginatus, N. pustulatus, N. orbicollis, and N. tomentosus). Specifically, the space-use and daily activity patterns are measured, at a fine scale, across species pairs to extrapolate contrasting niche-use patterns within a nicrophorine-rich grassland community in North-Central Oklahoma, USA. The results of this study reveal an important interplay between space-use and daily temporal activity in mediating the scramble competition associated with carrion resources. Where spatial or temporal overlap between burying beetle species is high, direct competition is mediated along an alternative niche dimension. For instance, N. americanus and N. orbicollis, a species dyad thought to be in direct competition, do overlap temporally but were found to have segregated space-use patterns. Our findings provide key insights into the competitive interactions within a necrophilous community and further inform our broader understanding of the spatial and temporal resource dimensions that drive the ecological niche.

Keywords

Nicrophorus Temporal niche Spatial niche Interspecific competition Burying beetles Niche segregation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank J. Alvarez, N. Antonson, L. Bartl, J. Bateau, A. Conley, S. Dodgin, E. Jorde, R. Jorde, L. Yares, K. Lee, A. Luger, R. Migotski, C. Neilson, J. O’del, M. Phillips, and J. Tracy for assistance in the field during the 4 years of this study. We thank R. Hamilton and J. Pruett of The Nature Conservancy Oklahoma Chapter for access to the study site, which is located on the traditional lands of the Wazhazhe (Osage), and Očeti Šakówiŋ (Sioux) people. The helpful comments of two anonymous reviewers greatly improved the manuscript and we thank them for their contributions.

Funding information

Funding for this project was provided by our colleagues and partners at Advanced Ecology, Ltd., and grants to CLH and DRH from the University of New Hampshire and the New Hampshire Agricultural Experimental Station.

Supplementary material

114_2019_1653_MOESM1_ESM.docx (30 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 30 kb)
114_2019_1653_Fig5_ESM.png (13.7 mb)
Online Resource 2:

Map of the core homerange of Nicrophorus americanus (ABB) across the tallgrass prairie study site in the summer of 2017. Core space use was estimated using the kernel density function in ArcGIS 10.3.1 software. A 50% isopleth polygon was then produced from the kernel density raster layer using Geospatial Modelling Environment software. Highest densities of ABBs were located in three discrete areas of the study site, all associated with riparian corridors. (PNG 14032 kb)

114_2019_1653_MOESM2_ESM.tif (96.3 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 98619 kb)
114_2019_1653_Fig6_ESM.png (13.7 mb)
Online Resource 3:

Map of the core homerange of Nicrophorus marginatus across the tallgrass prairie study site in the summer of 2017. Core space use was estimated using the kernel density function in ArcGIS 10.3.1 software. A 50% isopleth polygon was then produced from the kernel density raster layer using Geospatial Modelling Environment software. Highest densities of Nicrophorus marginatus were located in three discrete areas of the study site, all associated with more open grassland environments. (PNG 14054 kb)

114_2019_1653_MOESM3_ESM.tif (96.3 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 98619 kb)
114_2019_1653_Fig7_ESM.png (13.7 mb)
Online Resource 4:

Map of the core homerange of Nicrophorus orbicollis across the tallgrass prairie study site in the summer of 2017. Core space use was estimated using the kernel density function in ArcGIS 10.3.1 software. A 50% isopleth polygon was then produced from the kernel density raster layer using Geospatial Modelling Environment software. The highest densities of Nicrophorus orbicollis were located in a single partially forested region of the study site, overlapping one of the core range polygons of Nicrophorus americanus. (PNG 14069 kb)

114_2019_1653_MOESM4_ESM.tif (96.3 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 98619 kb)
114_2019_1653_Fig8_ESM.png (13.7 mb)
Online Resource 5:

Map of the core homerange of Nicrophorus pustulatus across the tallgrass prairie study site in the summer of 2017. Core space use was estimated using the kernel density function in ArcGIS 10.3.1 software. A 50% isopleth polygon was then produced from the kernel density raster layer using Geospatial Modelling Environment software. Highest densities of Nicrophorus pustulatus were located in three discrete areas of the study site, all located near gallery forests or riparian corridors embedded within the larger grassland landscape. (PNG 14055 kb)

114_2019_1653_MOESM5_ESM.tif (96.3 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 98619 kb)
114_2019_1653_Fig9_ESM.png (13.9 mb)
Online Resource 6:

Map of the core homerange of Nicrophorus tomentosus across the tallgrass prairie study site inthe summer of 2017. Core space use was estimated using the kernel density function in ArcGIS 10.3.1 software. A 50% isopleth polygon was then produced from the kernel density raster layer using Geospatial Modelling Environment software. Highest densities of Nicrophorus tomentosus were located in a single small area situated along a grassland-forest ecotone on the far eastern portion of the study site, which overlapped the core ranges of both Nicrophorus marginatus and Nicrophorus americanus in that year. (PNG 14221 kb)

114_2019_1653_MOESM6_ESM.tif (96.3 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 98619 kb)

References

  1. Anderson RS (1982) Resource partitioning in the carrion beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) fauna of southern Ontario: Ecological and evolutionary considerations. Can J Zool 60:1314–1325.  https://doi.org/10.1139/z82-178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barton PS, Cunningham SA, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD (2013) The role of carrion in maintaining biodiversity and ecological processes in terrestrial ecosystems. Oecologia 171:761–772.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2460-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedick JC, Ratcliffe BC, Hoback WW, Higley LG (1999) Distribution, ecology, and population dynamics of the American burying beetle [Nicrophorus americanus Olivier (Coleoptera, Silphidae)] in south-central Nebraska, USA. J Insect Conserv 3:171–181.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009684926873 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beninger CW (1994) Phenology, reproductive biology, and habitat associations of Nicrophorus Fab. (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Mer Bleue Bog area (Ottawa, Canada). Mem Entomol Soc Canada 169:135–143.  https://doi.org/10.4039/entm126169135-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beninger CW, Peck SB (1992) Temporal and spatial patterns of resource use among Nicrophorus carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in a Sphagnum bog and adjacent forest near Ottawa, Canada. Can Entomol 124:79–86.  https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent12479-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beyer HL (2012) Geospatial modeling environment (version 0.7. 2.1)Google Scholar
  7. Blouin-Demers G, Weatherhead PJ (2000) A novel association between a beetle and a snake: parasitism of Elaphe obsoleta by Nicrophorus pustulatus. Écoscience 7:395–397.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2000.11682609 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borkowski A, Skrzecz I (2016) Ecological segregation of bark beetle (Coleoptera, Curculionida Scolytinae) infested Scots pine. Ecol Res 31:135–144.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-015-1322-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown MGC, Beresford DV (2016) Unusually high trap catches of a snake egg parasitoid, Nicrophorus pustulatus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in the Frontenac Axis population of gray ratsnake Pantherophis spiloides. Can Wildl Biol Manag 5:25–31Google Scholar
  10. Carothers JH, Jaksić FM (1984) Time as a niche difference: the role of interference competition. Oikos 42:403–406.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3544413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chesson PL (1985) Coexistence of competitors in spatially and temporally varying environments: a look at the combined effects of different sorts of variability. Theor Popul Biol 28:263–287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-5809(85)90030-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Conley AL, Jorde EK, Jorde RE, Yares LK, Lee KK, Hall CL, Howard DR (2015) Habitat-related differences in necrophilous species composition: implications for resource competition. Prairie Nat 47:45–49Google Scholar
  13. Devault TL, Rhodes OE, Shivik JA (2003) Scavenging by vertebrates: behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives on an important energy transfer pathway in terrestrial ecosystems. Oikos 102:225–234.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12378.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Devault TL, Brisbin IL, Rhodes OE (2004) Factors influencing the acquisition of rodent carrion by vertebrate scavengers and decomposers. Can J Zool 82:502–509.  https://doi.org/10.1139/Z04-022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dyer NW, Price DL (2013) Notes on the diversity and foraging height of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of the Nassawango Creek Preserve, Maryland, USA. Coleopt Bull 67:397–400.  https://doi.org/10.1649/0010-065X-67.3.397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Estevo CA, Nagy-Reis MB, Nichols JD (2017) When habitat matters: habitat preferences can modulate co-occurrence patterns of similar sympatric species. PLoS One 12:1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Finn JA (2001) Ephemeral resource patches as model systems for diversity-function experiments. Oikos 92:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gause GF (1932) Experimental studies on the struggle for existence. J Exp Biol 9:389–402Google Scholar
  19. Hardin G (1960) The competitive exclusion principle. Science 131:1292–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hocking MD, Ring RA, Reimchen TE (2006) Burying beetle Nicrophorus investigator reproduction on Pacific salmon carcasses. Ecol Entomol 31:5–12.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0307-6946.2006.00747.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hocking MD, Darimont CT, Christie KS, Reimchen TE (2007) Niche variation in burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp.) associated with marine and terrestrial carrion. Can J Zool 85:437–442.  https://doi.org/10.1139/Z07-016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hutchinson GE (1957) Concluding Remarks. Cold Springs Harb Symp Quant Biol 22:415–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Juncos R, Milano D, Macchi PJ, Vigliano PH (2015) Niche segregation facilitates coexistence between native and introduced fishes in a deep Patagonian lake. Hydrobiologia 747:53–67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-2122-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Katakura H, Fukuda H (1975) Faunal makeup of ground and carrion beetles in Kamiotoineppu, Hokkaido University Nakagawa Experiment Forest, Northern Japan, with some notes on related problems. Res Bull Coll Exp For Hokkaido Univ 32:75–92Google Scholar
  25. Katakura H, Ueno R (1985) A preliminary study on the faunal make-up and spatio-temporal distribution of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) on the Ishikari coast, Northern Japan. Japanese J Ecol 35:461–468Google Scholar
  26. Keller WL, Heske EJ (2001) An observation of parasitism of black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta) eggs by a beetle (Nicrophorous pustulatus) in Illinois. Trans Illinois State Acad Sci 94:167–169Google Scholar
  27. Kentner E, Streit B (1990) Temporal distribution and habitat preference of congeneric insect species found at rat carrion. Pedobiologia 34:347–359Google Scholar
  28. Kozminykh VO, Esyunin SL (1994) Spectra of ecological groups and the structure of Coleoptera necrobiont communities. Russ Entomol J 3:75–80Google Scholar
  29. Kronfeld-Schor N, Dayan T (2003) Partitioning of time as an ecological resource. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:153–181.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132435 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lane JE, Boutin S, Speakman JR (2010) Humphries MM. Energetic costs of male reproduction in a scramble competition mating system. 79:27–34.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01592.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leasure DR (2017) Landsat to monitor an endangered beetle population and its habitat: addressing annual life history and imperfect detection. Insect Conserv Divers 10:385–398.  https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leasure DR, Hoback WW (2017) Distribution and habitat of endangered American burying beetle in northern and southern regions. J Insect Conserv 21:75–86.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-017-9955-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leasure DR, Rupe DM, Phillips EA et al (2012) Efficient new above-ground bucket traps produce comparable data to that of standard transects for the endangered american burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus Olivier (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Coleopt Bull 66:209–218.  https://doi.org/10.1649/072.066.0305 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Legros DL, Beresford DV (2010) Aerial foraging and sexual dimorphism in burying beetles (Silphidae: Coleoptera) in a central Ontario forest. J Entomol Soc Ontario 141:3–10Google Scholar
  35. Lingafelter SW (1995) Diversity, habitat preferences, and seasonality of Kansas carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). J Kansas Entomol Soc 68:214–223Google Scholar
  36. Lowe AJ, Lauff RF (2012) Arboreal Burials in Nicrophorus spp. (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Psyche 2012:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/578650 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. MacArthur R (1958) Population ecology of some warblers of northeastern coniferous forests. Ecology 39:599–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MacArthur R, Levins R (1967) The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. Am Nat 101:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meredith M, Ridout M (2017) Overview of the overlap package. R Proj:1–9Google Scholar
  40. Mullins PL, Riley EG, Oswold JD (2013) Identification, distribution, and adult phenology of the carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Texas. Zootaxa 3666:221–251.  https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3666.2.7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Nagano M, Suzuki S (2003) Phenology and habitat use among Nicrophorine beetles of the genus Nicrophorus and Ptomascopus (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Edaphologia 73:1–9Google Scholar
  42. Ohkawara K, Suzuki S, Katakura H (1998) Competitive interaction and niche differentiation among burying beetles (Silphidae, Nicrophorus) in northern Japan. Entomol Sci 1:551–559Google Scholar
  43. Owings CG, Picard CJ (2015) Temporal survey of a carrion beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) community in Indiana. Proc Indiana Acad Sci 124:124–129Google Scholar
  44. Peschke K, Krapf D, Fuldner D (1987) Ecological separation, functional relationships, and limiting resources in a carrion insect community. Zool Jb Syst 114: 241-265Google Scholar
  45. Pfeiffenberger C, Lear BC, Keegan KP, Allada R (2010) Locomotor activity level monitoring using the Drosophila activity monitoring (DAM) system. Cold Spring Harb Protoc 5:1238–1242.  https://doi.org/10.1101/pdb.prot5518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pianka ER (1973) The structure of lizard communities. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:53–74.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pukowski E (1933) Ökologische Untersuchungen an Necrophorus f. Ztschr für Morphol und Ökol der Tiere 27:518–586.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00403155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Putman ARJ (1978) Flow of energy and organic matter from a carcase during decomposition: decomposition of small mammal carrion in temperate systems 2. Oikos 31:58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ratcliffe BC (1996) The carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Nebraska. Bull Univ Nebraska State Museum 13:1–100.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/90.3.399 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ridout MS, Linkie M (2009) Estimating overlap of daily activity patterns from camera trap data. J Agric Biol Environ Stat 14:322–337.  https://doi.org/10.1198/jabes.2009.08038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rohner C (1990) Resource partitioning and interspecific competition in burying beetles Necrophorus (Coleoptera, Silphidae) in the Lake Zurich Area. Rev Suisse Zool 97:453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rundle HD, Nosil P (2005) Ecological speciation. Ecol Lett 8:336–352.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00715.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Samra S, Ghanim M, Protasov A, Mendel Z (2015) Spatial distribution and niche partitioning in the Ooencyrtus spp. complex parasitizing the eggs of Stenozygum coloratum. BioControl 60:747–760.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-015-9683-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schmid F, Schmidt A (2006) Nonparametric estimation of the coefficient of overlapping-theory and empirical application. Comput Stat Data Anal 50:1583–1596.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csda.2005.01.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schoener TW (1968) The Anolis lizards of Bimini: resource partitioning in a complex fauna. Ecology 49:704–726.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1935534 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schoener TW (1974) Resource partitioning in ecological communities. Science 185:27–39. https://doi.org/.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.185.4145.27 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Scott MP (1998) The ecology and behavior of burying beetles. Annu Rev Entomol 43:595–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Scott MP, Traniello JFA, Fetherston IA (1987) Competition for prey between ants and burying beetles (Nicrophorus Spp): differences between northern and southern temperate sites. Psyche A J Entomol 94:325–332.  https://doi.org/10.1155/1987/56594 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Scriven JJ, Whitehorn PR, Goulson D, Tinsley M (2016) Niche partitioning in a sympatric cryptic species complex. Ecol Evol 6:1328–1339.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1965 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Shubeck PP (1983) Habitat preferences of carrion beetles in the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Dermestidae, Nitidulidae, Histeridae, Scarabaeidae). J New York Entomol S 91:333-341Google Scholar
  61. Shubeck PP, Schleppnik AA (1984) Silphids attracted to carrion near St. Lois, Missouri (Coleoptera: Silphidae). J Kansas Entomol Soc 57:360-362 Also, please note that on line 95, the in-text perenthetical citation should be changed to (Shubeck and Schleppnik 1984).Google Scholar
  62. Sikes DS (1996) The natural history of Nicrophorus nigrita, a Western Nearctic species (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Pan-Pac Entomol 72:70–81Google Scholar
  63. Sikes DS, Raithel CJ (2002) A review of hypotheses of decline of the endangered American burying beetle (Silphidae: Nicrophorus americanus Olivier). J Insect Conserv 6:103–113.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020947610028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smith RJ, Heese B (1995) Carcass selection in a high altitude population of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus investigator (Silphidae). Southwest Assoc Nat 40:50–55Google Scholar
  65. Smith RJ, Merrick MJ (2001) Resource availability and population dynamics of Nicrophorus investigator, an obligate carrion breeder. Ecol Entomol 26:173–180.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2311.2001.00307.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Smith G, Trumbo ST, Sikes DS, Scott MP, Smith RL (2007) Host shift by the burying beetle, Nicrophorus pustulatus, a parasitoid of snake eggs. J Evol Biol 20:2389–2399.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01404.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Stuble KL, Rodrigues-Cabel MA, McCormick GL et al (2013) Tradeoffs, competition, and coexistence in eastern deciduous forest ant communities. Oecologia 171:981–992.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2459-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Taper M, Case T (1991) Coevolution among competitors. Oxford Surv Evol Biol 8:63–109Google Scholar
  69. Trumbo ST (1990a) Interference competition among burying beetles (Silphidae, Nicrophorus). Ecol Entomol 15:347–355.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1990.tb00816.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trumbo ST (1990b) Reproductive success, phenology and biogeography of burying beetles (Silphidae Nicrophorus). Am Midl Nat 124:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Trumbo ST (1990c) Regulation of brood size in a burying beetle, Nicrophorus tomentosus (Silphidae). J Insect Behav 3:491–500.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01052013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Trumbo ST, Bloch PL (2000) Habitat fragmentation and burying beetle abundance and success. J Insect Conserv 4:245–252.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011390215088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ulyshen MD, Hanula JL (2007) A comparison of the beetle (Coleoptera) fauna captured at two heights above the ground in a North American temperate deciduous forest. Am Midl Nat 158:260–278.  https://doi.org/10.1674/0003-0031(2007)158[260:ACOTBC]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ulyshen AMD, Hanula JL, Horn S (2007) Burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in the forest canopy: the unusual case of Nicrophorus pustulatus Herschel. Coleopt Bull 61:121–123.  https://doi.org/10.1649/924.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Urbański A, Baraniak E (2015) Activity of burying beetles (Coleoptera: Nicrophorus) in the forest edge a preliminary study. J Entomol Res Soc 17:1–9Google Scholar
  76. Wettlaufer JD, Burke KW, Schizkoske A, Beresford DV, Martin PR (2018) Ecological divergence of burying beetles into the forest canopy. PeerJ 6:e5829.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5829 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Wilhelm SI, Larson DJ, Storey AE (2001) Habitat preference of two burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorus) living among seabirds. Northeast Nat 8:435–442.  https://doi.org/10.1656/1092-6194(2001)008[0435:HPOTBB]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wilson DS, Fudge J (1984) Burying beetles: intraspecific interactions and reproductive success in the field. Ecol Entomol 9:195–203.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1984.tb00715.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wilson DS, Knollenberg WG, Fudge J (1984) Species packing and temperature dependent competition among burying beetles (Silphidae, Nicrophorus). Ecol Entomol 9:205–216.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1984.tb00716.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations